Kiwi distribution in Northland was surveyed during 1992, largely by listening for calls. Kiwi were recorded at 242 sites in six Ecological Districts. High call rates were recorded in the central and northern parts of Northland in forest remnants of varying sizes, but remnants over 100 ha had significantly higher call counts. Kiwi have declined in abundance and range in southern Northland since the late 1970s. Threats and potential threats to Northland kiwi include habitat destruction and deterioration, but particularly predation by dogs and other introduced mammals.