Data on the effects of aerial 1080 operations on non-target bird species in New Zealand are scarce and largely limited to short-term colour-banding or radio-tracking studies, or standardised call counts. During a 22-year study in Tongariro Forest, all 142 radio-tagged North Island brown kiwi (Apteryx mantelli
) survived 4 landscape-scale (20,000 ha) aerial broadcast 1080 operations targeting brush-tailed possum (Trichosurus vulpecula
) and rats (Rattus spp
.). Furthermore, both kiwi chick survival to 6 months old and New Zealand fantail (Rhipidura fuliginosa
) nesting success were significantly higher in the first 2 breeding seasons following the use of 1080 poison than in subsequent years of the 5-year cycle. We observed several episodes of ferret (Mustela furo
) killing multiple adult kiwi, particularly in the last half of the 1080 cycle. Population modelling showed that a 5-year 1080 operation cycle resulted in population gains for 2 years, followed by declines in the remaining 3 years that largely negated these benefits. Our data thus support the shift to a 3-year 1080 operation cycle which will more likely result in this kiwi population growing at close to the 2% per year target set by the 2018–2028 Kiwi Recovery Plan.