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APPENDIX 3 Alternative names for New Zealand birds

The information presented here is identical to that contained in the fifth edition of the Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand (Checklist Committee 2022). To access a pdf version of the Checklist click here.

SEARCH: To search for a word or phrase, use Ctrl-F to create a search box.

Recommended citations for information from this Appendix and the Supplementary Materials database

Miskelly, C.M. 2022. Alternative English, Māori, and Moriori names for New Zealand birds. Pp. 262–281 (Appendix 3) in Checklist Committee, Checklist of the birds of New Zealand (Fifth edition). Wellington, Birds New Zealand (published online as a pdf – and as an HTML webpage –
Miskelly, C.M. 2022. Database of alternative names for New Zealand birds. Supplementary Materials 2 in Checklist Committee, Checklist of the birds of New Zealand. (Fifth edition). Ornithological Society of New Zealand Occasional Publication No. 1. Wellington, Ornithological Society of New Zealand (published online –

Alternative English, Māori, and Moriori names for New Zealand birds

Selecting preferred Māori and English names for New Zealand birds is a difficult and often controversial task, as multiple names are used for many species. Māori often named different ages, sexes, and growth stages of birds, based on the species’ use and whakapapa (genealogy). For example, the name “tītī” has gained wide acceptance in recent decades as the Māori name for the sooty shearwater Ardenna grisea. However, it is not the name that many Rakiura Māori would give an individual adult A. grisea seen in flight. “Tītī” is mainly used for chicks of A. grisea at an age when they are ready for harvest. There is no agreement among muttonbirders on the name for adult A. grisea, with at least four different names in local use. Under-weight, unharvestable chicks have yet another name.

Furthermore, Māori apparently did not recognise as different, and separately name, certain similar-looking or closely-related species of birds. Different iwi (tribes) also have different dialects, and thus the spelling of essentially the same name may differ between different regions in the country (Table 2). In the late 19th Century, Māori bird names were taken from the works of prominent Pākehā (Europeans) who lived and worked with particular iwi. This is how the names used by certain iwi became more prevalent in recent usage than other tribal names for the same bird.

Table 2. New Zealand birds with more than 20 Māori names and/or with 30 or more variants of these names (i.e. the same sequence of letters, but with varying use of macrons, hyphens and/or spaces between words). The number of names is derived from this Appendix, with information on the source of all names and variants provided in the Supplementary Materials database.

English name

Scientific name(s)

Māori names

Total variants


Nestor meridionalis




Anthornis melanura



New Zealand robins

Petroica australis + P. longipes



New Zealand fantail

Rhipidura fuliginosa




Mohoua albicilla



Banded rail

Gallirallus philippensis




Acanthisitta chloris




Notiomystis cincta




Petroica macrocephala




Cyanoramphus novaeseelandiae + C. auriceps



New Zealand dotterel

Charadrius obscurus




Prosthemadera novaeseelandiae



Grey warbler Gerygone igata



New Zealand scaup Aythya novaeseelandiae



We here provide a preliminary list of alternative English, Māori, and Moriori names for New Zealand birds, to supplement the names presented in the main Checklist, and to allow users to link to species of interest, that may be searched for using an alternative name. The list was based on a database of 915 Māori and Moriori bird names compiled by Paul Scofield and Geoff Chambers, with input from the Māori Language Commission, during preparation of the 2010 Checklist. This was expanded to a database of 2,822 English and 2,515 Māori and Moriori names for New Zealand birds compiled by Colin Miskelly during preparation of the 2022 Checklist. Additional names were sourced primarily from Māori language dictionaries, and general publications on New Zealand birds. Eight Māori or Moriori names for New Zealand birds were sourced from recent single-species scientific publications, and 44 were created for the Te Taiao natural history exhibition in Te Papa (which opened in May 2019).

Birds are listed alphabetically by their scientific name, with superscripts used to provide an example of where the name was published. Multiple superscripts for a single name denote where the name has more than one variation (i.e. the same sequence of letters, but differing in the use of spaces, hyphens, macrons, apostrophes, or other diacritical marks) or where an earlier use of the name was imprecise about which species the name applied to. The recommended spellings of Māori bird names were mainly derived from Appendix 3 in the 2010 Checklist, and from the Māori Dictionary website ( – viewed Aug. 2021). All variations and early imprecise use of names, and also the page reference for each name, are provided in the Supplementary Materials database (

The Checklist Committee intends to expand this list during subsequent revisions of the Checklist. We invite submissions of additional names that have been used in publications (including websites, signage, and brochures) – please email examples of these to (please include a pdf, hyperlink, scan, or photograph showing the name in print).

Authors and editors of Birds New Zealand publications may use alternative bird names from this list, provided an explanation is given for why the name is used in preference to that in the main Checklist. Languages, and usage of bird names, evolve over time. If and when an alternative name is demonstrably the most frequently used name for a bird over the previous decade (at least) in Notornis (the scientific journal of Birds New Zealand / Ornithological Society of New Zealand), it will be moved to the main Checklist.

Standardised spellings have been used for the following English bird names: albatross includes albatros, dotterel includes dottrel and dotterell, mollymawk includes mollyhawk, mollymauk and molly-mawk, and parakeet includes parrakeet, paroquet and parroquet. Abbreviations: ch = chick, f = female, juv = juvenile, m = male, var = variety or colour variant.

The database is restricted to English, Māori and Moriori names that have been applied to New Zealand birds in New Zealand, plus English names that have been applied elsewhere to species that breed only in New Zealand. Some names were applied incorrectly, or names may have been switched between taxa over time. The main Checklist provides current names used for New Zealand birds.

Recommended citations for information from this Appendix and the Supplementary Materials database

Miskelly, C.M. 2022. Alternative English, Māori, and Moriori names for New Zealand birds. Appendix 3 in Checklist Committee, Checklist of the birds of New Zealand. Fifth edition. Wellington, Birds New Zealand (published online –
Miskelly, C.M. 2022. Database of alternative names for New Zealand birds. Supplementary Materials 2 in Checklist Committee, Checklist of the birds of New Zealand. Fifth edition. Wellington, Birds New Zealand (published online –

Acanthis flammea common redpoll108, lesser redpoll52, redpole16,16, redpoll47

Acanthisitta chloris rifleman19, tītitipounamu19,39,81, bush wren32, Chuck Connors100, citrine warbler35, creeper16, goldfinch10, hōutuutu54,74, kikimatu85, kikimutu7, kikipounamu36, kikirimutu19, kikitara36, kōhurehure36,81, kōrurerure (f)36,81, kotikotipa54, kotikotipae36, kōtipatipa54,81, kōtitititi54,81, mako10, miru miru11,13, momotawai36,113, momoutu36, mountain wren10, mōutuutu19,54,81, muhumuhu54, pihipihi6,8,10, pipiriki54, piripiri7, piwauwau5, piwauwaw11, rifleman wren54, spotted wren10, tāpahipare (m)36,81, thumbie78, titi-ponamu16, titipounamu14,52,93, titiripounamu92, toirua36, tokepiripiri19,81,93; A. c. granti North Island rifleman43; A. c. chloris South Island rifleman43, alpine rifleman34

Acridotheres tristis common myna88, maina134, house myna47, Indian minah47, Indian myna47, minah46, myna58, mynah86

Acrocephalus australis Australian reed warbler108

Actitis hypoleucos common sandpiper79

Aegotheles novaezealandiae New Zealand owlet-nightjar88, ruru hinapō122, little owl10, ruruwekau10

Aegotheles sp. indet. St Bathans owlet-nightjar137

Alauda arvensis Eurasian skylark111, kairaka92, common skylark135, pakeha pioioi92, pakeha piopio92, skylark16

Aldiomedes angustirostris Alastair’s albatross137

Alectoris chukar chukor72, chukar86, chukar partridge86, chukor partridge135, Indian chukar86, Persian chukar86

Anarhynchus frontalis wrybill32,50, ngutu pare24,54,81, blackringed plover10, crockbill91, crook-bill85,135, crook-bill plover16, crook-billed plover17,91, dotterel10, ngutu-parore54,79,88, parore93, pohoera10, scissor-bill14,85, tuturiwatu10, wrybill plover52, wrybilled plover19,58

Anas acuta northern pintail111

Anas aucklandica Auckland Island teal72, metawetanga14, Auckland Island duck24,35, Auckland Islands duck43,48,51, Auckland Island flightless duck73, Auckland Islands teal115, Auckland teal89, flightless duck32, flightless teal135, red teal14, tētē kākāriki122

Anas castanea chestnut teal94, Australian teal34, black teal85, chestnut-breasted teal85, mountain teal85, red teal85

Anas chathamica Chatham Island duck73

Anas chlorotis brown teal72, pāteke14,81, brown duck19, hoho92, patake24, pateka11, red teal16, South Island brown teal119, tarawhatu19,54, tata92, teal14, teal duck86, tei7, tētē24,81, tētē-whero19,36,58,81,134, tokitoki54

Anas gracilis grey teal32, tētē-moroiti24,81,93,99, Australian teal43, green-headed teal48, little teal16, pohoriki24, tētē19,81,134, tētē-wai54,81,134, wood-teal24

Anas nesiotis Campbell Island teal72, Campbell Island duck57, Campbell Island flightless duck73, Campbell Island flightless teal76, Campbell Islands teal115, Campbell teal89

Anas platyrhynchos mallard16, rakiraki113, feral duck113, matakīrea ōrangiuri122, pārera93

Anas superciliosa grey duck14, pārera5,8, black duck53, gray duck10, he parrera11, karakahia81, manua54, māunu24,81, Pacific black duck89, pārera maunu (moulting)134, supercilious duck85, tahora10, tāwaka81, topatopa (ch)36, turuki9

Anhinga melanogaster darter52, needle-beaked shag86, snakebird86,135; A. m. novaehollandiae Australian darter24, South Australian darter43

Anomalopteryx didiformis little bush moa90, moariki122

Anous minutus black noddy34, lesser noddy72, titerack86, white-capped noddy32, white-capped tern56

Anous stolidus brown noddy78, common noddy34, gogo86, greater noddy86, noddy16, noddy tern78

Anser anser greylag goose94, kuihi8, common goose47, domestic goose94, feral goose94, grey-lay goose47, kuuhi92, wild goose135

Anthochaera carunculata red wattlebird52,53,78,88, Australian honey-eater24, wattled honeyeater86, yellow wattle bird43,48

Anthornis melanocephala Chatham Island bellbird19,48, kōmako29,109, bell-bird49, Chatham Islands bellbird43,115, mako-mako11

Anthornis melanura bellbird10,13,48, korimako7, Auckland Islands’ bell bird43, he-ghobarra11, kēkerematua (m)36,81, kerekere matutū (m)36,93, kerekerematātu (m)54,81, kohimako8,19, kōhoimako5,36,81, kōhorimako5,81, kōkōmako6,7,81, kōkorihimako (m)38,81, kōkorimako9,81, kokorimoko7, kōkorohimako (m)19,81, kōkoromako14,81, kōmako19,81, kōmakohua99, kōmakohuariki (m)36,99, komakomako54, kōmamako36,81, kōpaopao7,93, kōpara9,81, kōparapara36,81, korihako54, korihimako38, korimaku5, korimoko7, koromako14, kotaiahu36, kukari (ch)36, mako19, makomako5,7, mocker16, mockie78, mockiemock100, mocking-creeper1,85, moko-moko16, New Zealand bellbird53,101, North Island bell bird43, para (f)54, rearea19, South Island bell bird43, tītapu (f)19,81, titiapu54, tītīmako6,7,8,81, titimoko93, titoaireka54, tītōmako14,81,93, tōtōaireka (f)36,81, totoara7, tukumako54, tūtūmako36,81; A. m. obscura Three Kings bellbird72; A. m. oneho Poor Knights bellbird88

Anthus novaeseelandiae New Zealand pipit19, pīhoihoi5,8,81, Australasian pipit108, Australian pipit88, common lark33, groundlark16,19,86, ground-pipit85, hīoi6,7,8, kātaitai5,81, kitaitai133, kogoo-aroure11, lark10, manu kahaki81,93,99, manukāwhaki99, native lark22, New Zealand lark11, North Island pipit43, okiuai7, pīoioi6,8,10,36,81, pīpipi-tai54,81,99, pipit51, Richard’s pipit88, sandlark78, South Island pipit43, whāioio8,36,81, whioi10,99, whioioi92, wioi kataitai9; A. n. chathamensis Chatham Island pipit61, Chatham Islands’ pipit43; A. n. aucklandicus Auckland Island pipit34, Auckland Islands pipit43,79, southern islands pipit73, subantarctic pipit101; A. n. steindachneri Antipodes Island pipit40, Antipodes lark32, Antipodes pipit79, Steindachner’s pipit35

Aptenodytes forsteri emperor penguin79

Aptenodytes patagonicus king penguin24, tokoraki92

Aptenodytes ridgeni Ridgen’s penguin90

Apteryx spp. kiwi5, eastern kiwi101, kiwi-ma92, ngutu-roa54, rire (juv)54, rirerire (juv)7

Apteryx australis southern brown kiwi101, tokoeka9,14,79, big kiwi85, brown kiwi32, common kiwi89, great kiwi14, kivi11, kiwi5, kiwikiwi11, kiwi roa93, roa23, rowi20, southern kiwi32, tokoweka36, totoweka92; A. australis subsp. South Island brown kiwi79, Fiordland tokoeka135, Haast tokoeka119, north Fiordland tokoeka113, northern Fiordland tokoeka119, South Island kiwi19, southern Fiordland tokoeka119, West Coast kiwi85; A. a. australis Stewart Island brown kiwi83, Rakiura tokoeka119, Stewart Island kiwi34, Stewart Island tokoeka113

Apteryx haastii Potts’ kiwi137

Apteryx littoralis Marton kiwi137

Apteryx mantelli North Island brown kiwi83, kiwi-nui11,81, brown kiwi16, Buller’s kiwi34, common brown kiwi14,common kiwi89, kiwikiwi5, kiwi-korako (white bird)54, kiwi-kura54,81, kiwi parure19,81, Mantell’s kiwi34, North Island kiwi19, northern brown kiwi101

Apteryx maxima great spotted kiwi32, roroa96, fireman11, great grey kiwi43, great kiwi16, grey kiwi53, Haast’s kiwi20, kiwi-karuai19, kiwi-karuwai36,81, kiwi parure11, kiwi roa99, kiwi roaroa99, large grey kiwi19, roa19, roaroa11,14,16, South Island kiwi54

Apteryx owenii little spotted kiwi72, kiwi pukupuku19,81, blue-hen20, grey kiwi14, kivi-iti11, kiwi20, kiwi-hoihoi10, 54, little apteryx10, little grey kiwi19, little kiwi58, Owen’s kiwi34, spotted kiwi32, straight-billed kiwi20, West Coast kiwi34

Apteryx rowi rowi96, Okarito brown kiwi111

Aptornis defossor South Island adzebill101, ngutu hahau122, adzebill90, greater aptornis52, South Island aptornis88

Aptornis otidiformis North Island adzebill101, adzebill90, lesser aptornis52, North Island aptornis88

strong>?Aptornis proasciarostratus St Bathans adzebill137

Apus pacificus fork-tailed swift72, Australian swift24, large white-rumped swift135, Pacific swift135, white-rumped swift43

Aquila moorei Haast’s eagle101, extinct New Zealand eagle88, giant eagle135, greater extinct eagle52, harpagornis135, hokioi54, lesser extinct eagle52, New Zealand eagle90, pouakai81,87

Archaeospheniscus lopdellorum Lopdells’ penguin90,137

Archaeospheniscus lowei Lowe’s penguin90

Ardea alba kōtuku6,7,8,81, white heron10, eastern great white egret73, eastern great white heron34, great egret88, great white egret85, great white heron48, katuka11, kotukutuku34, koutuku10, large egret86, New Zealand great white heron43, white crane12, white egret52

Ardea cinerea grey heron48, common heron34, gray heron135; A. c. jouyi oriental grey heron111, Asiatic grey heron72, Australian grey heron43

Ardea intermedia plumed egret84, intermediate egret83, lesser egret135, short-billed egret135, yellow-billed egret135

Ardea pacifica Pacific heron78, white-necked heron72

Ardenna spp. hakoakoa7, hakuakua36, titi-wahine92

Ardenna bulleri Buller’s shearwater24,52, rako131, ashy-back shearwater55, ashy-backed petrel53, ashy-backed shearwater48, ashy-backed wedge-tailed petrel43, Buller’s petrel24, gray-backed shearwater59, grey-backed shearwater86, long-tailed shearwater32, New Zealand shearwater55

Ardenna carneipes flesh-footed shearwater24, toanui86, fleshy-footed petrel53, fleshy-footed shearwater48, hakoakoa24, New Zealand flesh-footed petrel43, pale-footed shearwater86, pink-footed shearwater32, taonui54, tuanui113

Ardenna creatopus pink-footed shearwater88

Ardenna davealleni Pom’s shearwater137

Ardenna gravis great shearwater79

Ardenna grisea sooty shearwater35, tītī8,24,81, akoko98, grey petrel50, hakeke36, hākēkeke99, hakoakoa8,24, hakoke36, hakoko36, hakuakua36, koakoa36, mutton-bird16,24, New Zealand muttonbird32,72, ngungu (small bird)36, ōi (ch)36,81, oii16, sombre petrel43, sombre shearwater24, takakau36, totorore24

Ardenna pacifica wedge-tailed shearwater24,88, black burrower86, dark wedge-tailed shearwater55, Kermadec wedge-tailed petrel43, mourningbird135, wedge-shaped shearwater48, wedge-tailed muttonbird135, wedge-tailed petrel53

Ardenna tenuirostris short-tailed shearwater48, Bonaparte’s shearwater34, Brandt’s shearwater19, hakoakoa24, hakoko99, hakuakua24, ngungu134, ōi81, short-tailed petrel43, slender-billed shearwater86, Tasmanian muttonbird32,72, titi19

Arenaria interpres ruddy turnstone85, eastern turnstone43, turnstone16

Artamus cyanopterus dusky woodswallow137

Artamus personatus masked woodswallow83,88, blue jay86, blue martin86, bush martin86, skimmer86

Artamus superciliosus white-browed woodswallow83,88, blue martin86, summer-bird86

Athene noctua little owl52, ruru nohinohi122, brown owl86, German owl78, little brown owl58, small brown owl47

Australornis lovei Love’s Paleocene seabird137

Aythya australis Australian white-eyed duck43, karakahia14, barwing85, copperhead85, hardhead79, punkari85, white-eyed duck19, white-wing85, white-winged duck14,16

Aythya novaeseelandiae New Zealand scaup19, pāpango10,81, black duck10, black teal16, black widgeon22, he patek11, kaiharopia36, kukupako92, matamatapōuri36,93, matapo93, matapōuri6,7,8,81, New Zealand duck11, New Zealand scarp51, New Zealand widgeon54, papanga14, pārera matapouri36,54,81, pōkeke81, pūakiaki36,81, pupango32, raipo19, repo11, scaup48, scaup duck54, tētē81, tētēpango19,54,81, tētēwai pango93, tētēwhero93, tītīpōrangi19,81, tītitipō38,99, widgeon14

Bartramia longicauda upland sandpiper83, Bartram’s sandpiper84, prairie whistler84, quailie84, upland plover79

Biziura delautouri New Zealand musk duck101, de Lautour’s duck90

Botaurus poiciloptilus Australasian bittern83, matuku-hūrepo6,7,8,10,19,81, Australian bittern72, Australian brown bittern86, bittern10, black-backed bittern19, boomer135, brown bittern52, common bittern58, hūrepo36,81, hūroto36,81, kāka36,81, kautuku36, matuku5,8, matuku-kāka36,81, matuku-kurepo52, matuku-nurepo13, matuku-urepo5, New Zealand bittern24, New Zealand black-backed bittern43

Branta canadensis Canada goose52, kuihi113, Canadian goose47, honker86; B. c. maxima giant Canada goose86

Bubulcus ibis cattle egret78, buff-backed heron78; B. i. coromanda eastern cattle egret111

Bulweria bulwerii Bulwer’s petrel111

Cabalus modestus Chatham Island rail52, mātirakahu36,109, Chatham Island little rail53, Chatham Islands little rail51, Hutton’s rail24, little Chatham Island rail48, little Chatham Islands’ rail43, Mangare rail32, Mangere rail49

Cacatua galerita sulphur-crested cockatoo47, white cockatoo52

Cacomantis flabelliformis fan-tailed cuckoo79, ash-coloured cuckoo86

Calidris acuminata sharp-tailed sandpiper43, kohutapu34, marsh sandpiper20, pectoral sandpiper35, sandpiper24, sharp-tailed stint48, Siberian pectoral sandpiper72

Calidris alba sanderling48, beach-bird135, whitey135

Calidris alpina dunlin83, black-bellied sandpiper86, blackcrop135, red-backed sandpiper86

Calidris bairdii Baird’s sandpiper83

Calidris canutus red knot86, huahou24,93, common knot113, eastern knot73, knot16, lesser knot84,111,137

Calidris falcinellus broad-billed sandpiper78; C. f. sibirica eastern broad-billed sandpiper83

Calidris ferruginea curlew sandpiper34,35, curlew stint86

Calidris fuscicollis white-rumped sandpiper83, Bonaparte’s sandpiper86

Calidris himantopus stilt sandpiper111

Calidris mauri western sandpiper79

Calidris melanotos pectoral sandpiper48, American pectoral sandpiper72

Calidris minuta little stint48

Calidris minutilla least sandpiper72, American stint84, mud peep84

Calidris paramelanotos Cox’s sandpiper137

Calidris pugnax ruff79, reeve (f)84

Calidris pusilla semipalmated sandpiper79,84, sand peep84

Calidris ruficollis red-necked stint48, eastern little stint72, red-necked sandpiper32, red-throated stint35, rufous-necked sandpiper86, rufous-necked stint135

Calidris subminuta long-toed stint79, Middendorf’s stint135

Calidris subruficollis buff-breasted sandpiper115, grasspiper135

Calidris tenuirostris great knot79, Asiatic knot86, eastern knot86, greater knot86, greater sandpiper86

Callaeas spp. kōkako5,9,11,81,99, cinereous wattlebird11,108, crow10, gillbird78,108, hōkako54,81, hōngā36,81, hōngē36,81, kakako5, manu-whakaounga36, New Zealand crow32, ōngā54,81, ōngē7,8,81, organ-bird78, pakara36,81, wattlebird85,108, wattled crow51, werewere108, werewere-kokako54

Callaeas cinerea South Island kokako72,109, kōkā92,111, blue crow33, great wattled bird85, orange wattle crow44, orange-wattled crow16,86, orange-wattled kokako108, South Island crow32, wattled-bird22, yellow-wattled crow28

Callaeas wilsoni North Island kokako72, kōkako93, blue crow33, bluegill78,86, blue-gills85, blue-wattled crow16,86, North Island crow32

Callipepla californica California quail83, tikaokao54, Californian quail12, callie86, koera113, kuera93, kuera Karipōnia122, McPherson quail135, plumed quail135, tikaukau54, tikoukou54

Calonectris borealis Cory’s shearwater86, Mediterranean great shearwater57, Mediterranean shearwater73, North Atlantic shearwater72

Calonectris leucomelas streaked shearwater111

Capellirallus karamu snipe-rail90,101, cave rail73, New Zealand snipe-rail88

Carduelis carduelis European goldfinch108, kōurarini122, goldfinch16, goldie78

Cereopsis novaehollandiae Cape Barren goose16, pig goose86

Charadrius bicinctus banded dotterel19, pohowera16, dotterel16, double-banded dotterel43, double-banded plover86, mountain plover84, piopio6,7,99, redwinged plover10, turituri whatu93, turiwhati81, turiwhatu81, turuatu6,8,134, turuturuwhatu134, turuwhatu134, tuturiwatu10, tuturiwhata19, tūturiwhati24,134, tūturiwhatu14,93, tuturuatu134, tuturuwhatu134; C. b. exilis Auckland Island banded dotterel73, Auckland Island banded plover103

Charadrius leschenaultii greater sand plover84,135, Geoffroy’s sand plover78, greater sand dotterel113, large sand dotterel72, large sand plover91, large-billed dotterel84, long-billed sand plover86

Charadrius mongolus lesser sand plover78,84, lesser sand dotterel113, Mongolian dotterel78, Mongolian plover86, Mongolian sand dotterel113, Mongolian sand plover113,135, short-billed sand plover86, Tibetan plover135

Charadrius obscurus New Zealand dotterel19, tūturiwhatu24,81, dotterel14, dusky plover3, ha-poho-era11, kūkuruatu81, moakura11, paturiwhata86, pohoera10, pukunui7, putoto7, pututo11, rako54, red-breasted dotterel72, red-breasted plover16, spotted plover10, tākahikahi7,81, tākaikaha36,81, tākaikai36,81, tituriwhatu-pukunui85, totoripa92, turiwhati36, turiwhatu36, turuatu7,8,36, turuturuwhatu36, turuwhatu36, tuturiwata13, tuturiwata pukunui11, tuturiwatu5, tuturiwhata19, tūturiwhati24,81, tūturiwhatu24,81, tuturiwhatu-pukunui36, tuturuatu36, tuturuwhati81, tuturuwhatu36,81, tūwhaipapa93; C. o. aquilonius northern New Zealand dotterel111; C. o. obscurus southern New Zealand dotterel111

Charadrius ruficapillus red-capped plover86, red-capped dotterel24, red-capped sandplover135, red-necked dotterel135, red-necked plover135, sandlark135

Charadrius semipalmatus semipalmated plover111

Charadrius veredus oriental dotterel43, eastern long-legged sand plover86, eastern sand plover86, oriental plover48

Chenonetta finschi Finsch’s duck90, manutahora122, extinct New Zealand duck73, extinct New Zealand teal52

Chenonetta jubata Australian wood duck73, maned duck83, maned goose72

Chlidonias albostriatus black-fronted tern24, tarapirohe54,99,134, common tern16, gray tern 10, grey tern19, inland tern56, plough bird85, ploughboy78,85, riverbed tern78, sea martin78, tara10, taraiti93, tara piroe11,115

Chlidonias hybridus whiskered tern83

Chlidonias leucopterus white-winged black tern19, eastern white-winged black tern43, white-winged marsh tern52, white-winged tern16

Chloris chloris European greenfinch108, green linnet16, greenfinch22, greenie135

Chroicocephalus bulleri black-billed gull16, tarāpuka92,111,113, black bill gull92, Buller’s gull34, lake gull85, rapunga54, tarapua54, tarapuke92, tarāpunga6,8,10,24,134, toie (juv)54

Chroicocephalus novaehollandiae silver gull53, Australian gull34; C. n. scopulinus red-billed gull24, tarāpunga6,7,8,11,14,81,81, akiaki5,24, ash-backed gull4, brown-billed gull24, hakorā36,81, he talle11, jackie61, karae54, karehākoa36,81, katatē36,81, katete93, kittiwake44, kittywake85, little gull10, mackerel gull16,35, makorā24,81,99, New Zealand red-billed gull43, New Zealand silver gull72, piapuka11, sea martin92, taketake36, tarāpua81,99

Chrysococcyx lucidus shining cuckoo12, pīpīwharauroa8,33,81, bronze cuckoo33, bronze-winged cuckoo22, cuckoo54, cuckoo’s mate41, dog-whistler85, glistening cuckoo41, goldenspotted cuckoo10, golden-winged cuckoo41, green cuckoo41, nakonako36, New Zealand shining cuckoo43, pipiauroa19,81, pipiriwharauroa54, pipiuwaroa16,16, pipiwararoa14, pipiwarauroa6,7, pipiwarouroa11, pipiwawaroa5, pipiwawarou11, piripiriwharauroa36, piwarauroa9, poopoo arouro11, pūpūwharauroa36,81, rauroa81, shining bronze-cuckoo51,97, shining cuckow11, shiny cuckoo14, short-tailed cuckoo41, te manu a Māui99, warauroa7, whakarauroa54, wharau81, wharauroa36, whēnakonako41,81, whistler16, whistling cuckoo22

Circus approximans swamp harrier78, kāhu6,8, austral harrier93, Australasian harrier72, common brown hawk10, common hawk25, Fiji harrier72, goldeneyed hawk10, Gould’s harrier19, harrier14, harrier hawk46, hawk13, kāho99, kāhu-komokomo24,81,99, kāhu-kōrako (old bird)19,81,99, kahu korakorako10, kahu-kura54, kāhu maiepa24,81,99, kāhu-pango (juv)19,58,81,134, kahu papango10, kāhu pōkere o te whenua (juv)81, kērangi54,81, manu-tahae24,54, marsh harrier86, native harrier33, New Zealand harrier28, swamp hawk53,85, tapukōrako (old bird)134, tikaka36, white hawk10

Circus teauteensis Eyles’ harrier90, kērangi122, extinct harrier88, Forbes’ harrier109, giant harrier135, large extinct harrier73, New Zealand harrier135

Cnemiornis spp. New Zealand goose135, giant extinct goose52, tarepo54

Cnemiornis calcitrans South Island goose90, South Island extinct goose73

Cnemiornis gracilis North Island goose90, tarepo135, North Island extinct goose73, tarepo nō Te Ika-a-Māui122

Coenocorypha spp. bush snipe66, hākawai94,99, hōkioi94,99, island snipe95, native snipe95, New Zealand semi-woodcock95, semi-woodcock53, snipe40, southern islands snipe95, subantarctic snipe95,95, tutukiwi84

Coenocorypha aucklandica subantarctic snipe78,111, native snipe27, New Zealand snipe48, semi woodcock (New Zealand)51, semi-woodcock85; C. a. aucklandica Auckland Island snipe19,35, Auckland Islands snipe43,95; C. a. meinertzhagenae Antipodes Island snipe43; C. a. perseverance Campbell Island snipe101

Coenocorypha barrierensis North Island snipe104, Little Barrier snipe73

Coenocorypha chathamica Forbes’ snipe109, extinct Chatham Island snipe52, Forbes’s snipe104, giant Chatham Island snipe90

Coenocorypha huegeli Snares Island snipe35,43, tutukiwi54, bush snipe85, Snares snipe32

Coenocorypha iredalei South Island snipe104, tutukiwi109, hākawai99, hākuai92,99, hākuwai99,134, hōkio99, hōkioi99, hōkiwai99, Iredale’s snipe101, kākuikui99, ōkioī6,7,8,81,99, Stewart Island snipe72

Coenocorypha pusilla Chatham Island snipe24, Chatham Islands snipe48,43, Chatham snipe113, little snipe95, native snipe16

Collocalia sp. indet. St Bathans swiftlet137

Columba livia rock pigeon52, kererū aropari122, blue rock dove78, blue rock pigeon22, common pigeon47, domestic pigeon113, feral pigeon86, homing pigeon113, pigeon16, racing pigeon135, rock dove47, street pigeon135

Coracina novaehollandiae black-faced cuckoo-shrike52,72, Australian greybird135, Australian little cuckoo-shrike43, Australian shrike24, bifcus135, black-faced greybird135, black-faced shrike19, blue jay86, blue peter135, cherry hawk135, greater cuckoo-shrike135, grey jay135, large cuckoo-shrike86, little cuckoo shrike48, rainbird135, shrike thrush16, shufflewing86, small-billed cuckoo-shrike135, stormbird135, summerbird86, white-vented cuckoo-shrike135

Corvus frugilegus rook16, crow86

Corvus moriorum New Zealand raven101, extinct New Zealand crow73, New Zealand crow90; C. m. antipodum North Island raven137; C. m. pycrafti South Island raven137; C. m. moriorum Chatham Island raven101, extinct Chatham Island crow52

Coturnix novaezelandiae New Zealand quail19, koreke9, kāreke38,81, koikoiareke36, koitareka93, koitareke9,99, kōkōreke6,7,8,81, koreka14, kōriki54,93, koutareke7,8,9, koweka54, moho-koreke10,11, native quail16, quail14, stubble quail88, tāreka93, tāreke36,81, tāwaka54,81, tikaokao54, tikaukau54, tikoukou54, tūpererū81, whēwhī81

Coturnix ypsilophora brown quail47; Coturnix ypsilophora australis Australian brown quail78, kuera93, Australian quail46, koera134, rat quail80, swamp quail47, Tasmanian quail16

Crex crex corncrake48,72, land-rail43,52

strong>?Crossvallia waiparensis Waipara Crossvallia penguin137

Cuculus optatus oriental cuckoo48, Australian cuckoo34, hawk cuckoo86, Himalayan cuckoo86, Horsfield’s cuckoo135

Cuculus pallidus pallid cuckoo72, brainfever bird86, rain bird135, storm bird86

Cyanoramphus auriceps & C. novaezelandiae kakaiki16,16, kākāriki7,8,29,81, kākāwaiariki36,81, kākāwairiki81,97, kākāwariki24,81,97,99, kawariki36, kawatere36, New Zealand parakeet96, parakeet14, parewaka92,92, porere92, porete36,93, pōreterete36,81, porete-torete58,58, poroti81,99, pouwaitere9, powaitere7, pōwhaitere8,14,81, tatariki8,36, torete19, tōreterete54,81

Cyanoramphus auriceps yellow-crowned parakeet72, kākāriki5,93, auriceps parakeet44, goldenheaded parakeet10, kakariki porere9, North Island yellow-fronted parakeet43, potarakina10, South Island yellow-fronted parakeet43, yellow-fronted New Zealand parakeet85, yellow-fronted parakeet19, yellow-fronted parrot53, yellow-top14, yellow-top parakeet16

Cyanoramphus forbesi Forbes’ parakeet72,85, Chatham Island parakeet32, Chatham Island yellow-crowned parakeet79, Chatham Island yellow-fronted parakeet73, Chatham Islands’ yellow-fronted parakeet43, Chatham parakeet132, Forbes’s parakeet104

Cyanoramphus hochstetteri Reischek’s parakeet72, Antipodes Island red-crowned parakeet113, Antipodes Island red-fronted parakeet43, Antipodes red-crowned parakeet86, Hochstetter’s parakeet101, red-eared parakeet86

Cyanoramphus malherbi orange-fronted parakeet24, kākāriki karaka112,127,135, alp-parakeet85, alpine parakeet72, kākāriki97,113, kākāriki-rae-karaka136, Malherbe’s parakeet105, orange-fronted kākāriki136, orange-fronted parrot53

Cyanoramphus novaezelandiae red-crowned parakeet78, kākāriki5,81, Auckland-Island parakeet35, Auckland Islands’ parakeet43, crimson-top14, crimson-top parakeet16, kakiriki11, lesser red-fronted parrot30, New Zealand parakeet72, red-fronted kakariki97, red-fronted parakeet19, red-fronted parrot53, red-headed parakeet10,135, red-topped parakeet85, red-topped parrot85; C. n. cyanurus Kermadec parakeet72, Kermadec Island parakeet32, Kermadec Islands’ parakeet43; C. n. novaezelandiae red-crowned parakeet78, kākāriki5,99, kakariki matua9, po-e-tere5,11, New Zealand red-crowned parakeet86; C. n. chathamensis Chatham Island red-crowned parakeet79, Chatham Island parakeet72

Cyanoramphus unicolor Antipodes Island parakeet24, Antipodes green parakeet85, Antipodes Island green parakeet73, Antipodes Island parrot53, Antipodes Islands parakeet115, Antipodes parakeet35, green parakeet85, uniform parakeet135

Cygnus atratus black swan16, kakīānau135, Australasian black swan104, wāna113, wani113

Cygnus olor mute swan72, wāna134, wani134, white swan16

Cygnus sumnerensis New Zealand swan90, matapu54, extinct New Zealand swan52, poūwa117; C. s. sumnerensis New Zealand swan90, matapu54, New Zealand black swan104; C. s. chathamicus Chatham Island swan,73 poūwa117, Chatham Island black swan104

Dacelo novaeguineae laughing kookaburra52, great brown kingfisher86, kookaburra72, laughing jackass47

Daption capense Cape petrel19, karetai hurukoko122, Cape pigeon10, pintado petrel24, speckled haglet85, spotted petrel48; D. c. australe Snares Cape petrel111, New Zealand Cape petrel103, Snares Cape pigeon72; D. c. capense Antarctic Cape petrel113

Deliaphaps zealandiensis Zealandian dove 137

Dendrocygna eytoni plumed whistling duck53,89, Eyton’s tree-duck86, Eyton’s whistling duck135, grass whistle duck86, grass whistling duck84, plumed tree-duck86, plumed whistle duck135, plumed whistling tree-duck78, whistling duck16

Dendroscansor decurvirostris long-billed wren104, manu paea122

Diaphorapteryx hawkinsi Hawkins’ rail101, mehonui109, giant Chatham Island rail52, hopiritu29, moakirua54 , moakurarua54

Dinornis novaezealandiae North Island giant moa109, kuranui54, giant moa90, large bush moa90, moa tipua122, po-waka-i11, New Zealand ostrich54, slender bush moa90

Dinornis robustus South Island giant moa109, moa nunui122, giant moa48, large bush moa48, slender bush moa48

strong>Dinornithiformes moa6, kuratai54, poua54, pouakai54, te kura104

Diomedea spp. toroa5,8, toroa-teo54, toroa-teoteo54, toroa whakairo54,81, toroa whara54,81

Diomedea antipodensis Antipodean albatross73, toroa12, Antipodes wandering albatross124, Australian wandering albatross43, wanderer65, wandering albatross22; D. a. gibsoni Gibson’s albatross73, Gibson’s wandering albatross124

Diomedea epomophora & Diomedea sanfordi (royal albatrosses), tapu-korako54, toroa ingoingo81,98, toroa whakaingo81,134, toroa whakairo99

Diomedea epomophora southern royal albatross72,134, toroa, Campbell Island royal albatross43, Enderby Island royal albatross43, royal albatross32

Diomedea exulans wandering albatross94, toroa, albatross14, gony85, hopo98, huianui54,85, leopard gony (juv)80, snowy albatross32, tapu-korako54,81,85, teoteo (ch)99, torea19, wanderer86

Diomedea sanfordi northern royal albatross72,134, toroa, Chatham Island royal albatross73, hopo (ch)106, royal albatross52

Dunstanetta johnstoneorum Johnstones’ duck111

Duntroonornis parvus Duntroon penguin90

Egretta garzetta little egret72

Egretta novaehollandiae white-faced heron52, matuku moana19,134, blue crane78, blue heron85, matuku39, white-fronted heron19

Egretta sacra reef heron34,53, matuku moana36,78, blue crane14, blue heron10, blue reef heron73, eastern reef egret89, eastern reef heron86, heron13, kākatai6,8,36,81, kotuku-wai-tai92, matook3, matou-cou3, matuku8,9, matuku nuia24,99, matuku tai24,134, mātukutuku6,8,24,81, matuku waitai10,36,134, New Zealand blue heron43, New Zealand heron3, reef egret113, sacred heron3, tīkāka36,81,93

Elseyornis melanops black-fronted dotterel73, black-fronted plover86

Emberiza cirlus cirl bunting16

Emberiza citrinella yellowhammer16,46,58, hurukōwhai122, yellow bunting72

Emeus crassus eastern moa90, moa mōmona122

Eolophus roseicapillus galah94, rose cockatoo135, roseate cockatoo135, rose-breasted cockatoo135, Willock cockatoo135

Erythrogonys cinctus red-kneed dotterel83

Eudynamys taitensis long-tailed cuckoo12,14,49, koekoeā, cuckoo10, home owl97, karere-o-mahuru54, kawakawea11, kaweau54, kawekaweā7,81, kawekaweau54, koehoperoa8,33, koekoa14, koekoea6,7,8,81, koekoeau54, koekoia5, kohaperoa5, kohapiroa5, koheperoa5, kohepuroa11, kohihi6,7, kōhoperoa7,81, kokoea36, kuekuea36, long-tailed koel94, manu-o-mahuru54, New Zealand koel85, screamer85, screecher86, Society cuckow11, sparrow hawk97

Eudyptes atatu dawn crested penguin137

Eudyptes chrysocome western rockhopper penguin88, southern rockhopper penguin135

Eudyptes chrysolophus macaroni penguin24; E. c. schlegeli royal penguin24, macaroni penguin43, Schlegel’s penguin34

Eudyptes filholi eastern rockhopper penguin88, tawaki piki toka122, Campbell Island crested penguin43, crested penguin43, rock-hopper35, rockhopper penguin65,71, tufted penguin24, Victoria penguin34, yellow-crested penguin85

Eudyptes moseleyi northern rockhopper penguin115, Moseley’s rockhopper penguin83

Eudyptes pachyrhynchus Fiordland crested penguin73, tawaki7, crested penguin16, drooping-crested penguin67, Fiordland penguin86, great penguin14, New Zealand crested penguin72, pokotiwha24, popotiwha54, tauake11, tawake81,92,99, tawhaki7, thick-billed penguin53, tufted penguin44, Victoria penguin40, yellow-crested penguin19

Eudyptes robustus Snares crested penguin72, pokotiwha96, rock-hopper penguin35, Snares Island crested penguin89, Snares Island penguin67, Snares penguin86, tawaki nana hō122

Eudyptes sclateri erect-crested penguin62, tawaki nana hī122, big-crested penguin32,40, great-crested penguin60, Sclater’s penguin24, Sclater’s rock-hopper35, tawaki86

Eudyptes warhami Chatham Island crested penguin137, Chatham crested penguin101, Warham’s crested penguin135, Warham’s penguin135

Eudyptula minor little penguin10, kororā5,8,81, blue penguin14, fairy penguin86, little blue penguin19, rockhopper44,50; E. m. minor New Zealand little penguin137, Chatham Island blue penguin83, Chatham Islands’ little penguin43, Cook Strait blue penguin78, karora54, korara86, northern blue penguin72, penu81,92, silver penguin48, southern blue penguin72, white-flippered blue penguin83, white-flippered penguin32; E. m. novaehollandiae Australian little penguin119, fairy penguin89

Euryapteryx curtus stout-legged moa109, moa hakahaka122, moa waewae hakahaka122; E. c. curtus coastal moa90, broad-billed moa135, North Island coastal moa119; E. c. gravis stout-legged moa90, South Island coastal moa119

Eurystomus orientalis dollarbird30,72,88, Australian roller24, broad-billed roller72, eastern broad-billed roller52, roller48

Falco cenchroides nankeen kestrel34, Australian kestrel86, Australian windhover78, hoverer78

Falco novaeseelandiae New Zealand falcon11, kārearea6,8,11,81, bush falcon86, bush hawk19,43,71, eastern falcon86, falcon14, kāeaea19,81, kahu11, kahu papango11, kāiaia6,7,8,81, kaiawa54, kāieie36,99, kākarapiti (m)19,81, kakaratiti58, kārewarewa7,81, kārewarewa tara19,81, kari-area11, kāuaua5,8,81, little falcon10, pimirumiru6,7, pouakai92, quail hawk16,19, southern falcon86, sparrowhawk13,16,86, tāwaka19,81

Fregata spp. man-o’-war bird86,135, man-o’-war hawk86,135, pirate bird135, sea-hawk135

Fregata ariel lesser frigatebird43,53,88, least frigatebird89, least man-o’-war78, small frigatebird19

Fregata minor great frigatebird19,34,89, eastern tropic bird43, frigate bird14,16, greater frigatebird52,88, hakuai36, hakuwai24, hokioi24, hokiwai36, okioi6,36, Pacific man-o’-war bird86

Fregetta grallaria white-bellied storm petrel72,89, broad-tailed storm petrel135, Vieillot’s storm petrel135

Fregetta maoriana New Zealand storm petrel73, 124, takahikare-raro113, lined storm-petrel53, Peninsula storm petrel55,57, Samoan storm petrel43, streaked storm-petrel124

Fregetta tropica black-bellied storm petrel19,43, takahikare-rangi54, black-bellied petrel58, storm petrel54, stormy petrel16, takahikare54, takahikare-moana54, takahikare-raro54

Fringilla coelebs chaffinch16, pahirini99, common chaffinch108, whitira korepe99

Fulica atra Eurasian coot88, coot48; F. a. australis Australian coot34, Australasian coot86, eastern Australian coot43, Murray coot47

Fulica chathamensis Chatham Island coot88, extinct Chatham Island coot52, New Zealand coot73

Fulica prisca New Zealand coot73, extinct South Island coot52

Fulmarus glacialis northern fulmar137, Arctic fulmar135; F. g. rodgersii Pacific northern fulmar137

Fulmarus glacialoides Antarctic fulmar78, silver-grey fulmar72, silver-grey petrel32, silvery-grey fulmar40, silvery-grey petrel19, southern fulmar86

Gallinago hardwickii Japanese snipe52, Australian snipe34, Latham’s snipe86, longbill86

Gallinula chloropus common moorhen111, common gallinule135, common waterhen135, Indian waterhen79, moorhen135

Gallinula tenebrosa dusky moorhen79, black gallinule135, black moorhen135, dusky gallinule135, sombre gallinule135, sombre moorhen135

Gallirallus australis weka5,96, brown wood-hen53, hoā36,54,81, kelp-hen21,91, Māori hen85,91,113, moho11, mokakaweka54,85, mokaweka54, mū54,81, troglodyte rail11, weka rail22,35, wekaweka5,36, woodhen5,10,14,16, woodrail78; G. a. greyi North Island weka14, brown woodhen58, North Island woodhen19,43; G. a. australis western weka72, black weka28, black woodhen16,19,35, brown weka48, brown woodhen34,48, dark wood hen14, Earl’s weka54, mohopango14, South Island weka21, South Island woodhen19,35, southern woodhen30, water hen85, weka-pango (black morph)19,81; G. a. hectori buff weka72, buff woodhen34, eastern buff weka98, eastern weka72, hill woodhen32,85, South Island weka48, South Island woodhen43,48, southern woodhen53,85; G. a. scotti Stewart Island weka72, Stewart Island wood-hen43

Gallirallus dieffenbachii Dieffenbach’s rail19, moeriki5, Chatham Island rail48, Chatham Islands rail43,51, mehoriki109, meriki91, moerihi91, moho14

Gallirallus philippensis banded rail24, moho pererū11,14,19,81,81, banded landrail85, buff-banded rail48, kata tei91, katatai5,81, konini5, landrail12,24,78, mioweka78, moho8,81, moho kākatai93, moho kātātai11,36,81, moho-koreke36, moho-kura36, moho-pango36, moho-patarai58, moho pātātai10,19,81,81, moho-popotai81,81, moho pūohotata54,81, moho-ririwai36,54, moho tātai19,36,81, moho-tupereru36, moririwai54, motarua36, New Zealand banded rail72, New Zealand buff-banded rail43, oho36, ohomauri36,38, patarai58, pātātai19,81, pectoral rail32, pepe54, pōpōtai7,19,81, pūohotata24,81, striped land rail14, striped rail16, tātai133

Garrodia nereis grey-backed storm petrel19,35, reoreo6,8,36, storm-petrel40

Gelochelidon nilotica gull-billed tern73; G. n. macrotarsa Australian gull-billed tern137, Australian tern135, long-legged tern86

Gerygone albofrontata Chatham Island warbler24, Chatham gerygone132, Chatham Island gerygone105, Chatham Islands warbler43,53, warbler61, white-faced warbler19, white-fronted warbler51, woodpecker49

Gerygone igata grey warbler16, riroriro10,13, ashcoloured wren10, bartailed wren10, black cap14, bush warbler34, gray gerygone121, grey fairy-warbler113, grey gerygone102, hīrorirori36,81, hōrirerire10,81, hororirori54, igata5, kariroriro58, kōrire54,81, kōrirerire36,81, kōriroriro6,8,19,81, momohoua14, New Zealand gerygone135, New Zealand grey warbler53, nonoroheke36, nonoroheko36, North Island grey warbler43, North Island mountain warbler43, piripiri14, pītongatonga81,93, rainbird135, rirerire36, rirerite133, riretori81, riretoro54, riririro133, South Island bush warbler43, South Island grey warbler43, South-Island warbler35, teetotum86, titiripaenamu11, tōtoroie54,81, totorori38, tōtororire36,81, warbler33, whiringa54, whiringa-ā-tau81

Glareola maldivarum oriental pratincole79, Australian pratincole34, eastern collared pratincole86, eastern pratincole86, large Indian pratincole135, oriental collared pratincole78, swallow-plover86

Grallina cyanoleuca magpie-lark137, Australian magpie-lark47, mudlark47,135, peewee47,135, peewit135, pied grallina47

Grus sp. unidentified crane135

Gygis alba white tern32, angel tern113, fairy tern78, love tern78, Pacific tern86, silky white tern26, white noddy78

Gymnorhina tibicen Australian magpie16, makipai113, bell-magpie113, black-backed magpie52, makipae93, timohina99, white-backed crow-shrike47, white-backed magpie52

Haematopus chathamensis Chatham Island oystercatcher72, tōrea tai134, Chatham Islands oystercatcher115, Chatham oystercatcher113, oyster-catcher61, redbill86, torea29

Haematopus finschi South Island pied oystercatcher72, tōrea6,7,8,81, common oystercatcher54, Finsch’s oystercatcher101, korea54, New Zealand oyster-catcher43, New Zealand pied oystercatcher135, oystercatcher54, pied oystercatcher10,16, pied piper84, pied redbill85, redbill14,16,78, sea-pie22, SIPO85, torea-nui10, tōrea tai24,99, tōrea tuawhenua113, toria11, toria nui11

Haematopus unicolor variable oystercatcher78, tōrea pango (black morph)19,22,81,88, black oystercatcher10,16, black red-bill22, korea54, mudpigeon78,84, musselpicker84, New Zealand black oyster-catcher43, North Island oyster-catcher70, North Island pied oystercatcher73, northern oystercatcher72, redbill13,54,56, sooty oyster-catcher53, tōrea6,7,8,81, torea-nui10, tōrea tai81, VOC113

Hakawai melvillei New Zealand lake-wanderer137

Haliaeetus leucogaster white-bellied sea eagle73,91

Halobaena caerulea blue petrel19

Hemiphaga chathamensis parea94, Chatham Island pigeon32, Chatham Islands pigeon43,48, Chatham pigeon113, kuku52, parē29

Hemiphaga novaeseelandiae kererū6,8, New Zealand pigeon11, cucupyi11, hagarreroo11, karoro tangi harau81, keriru9, kokopa135, kūkū5,8,81, kūkupa5,8, manu-tute (m)54, native pigeon44, New Zealand wood pigeon58, parea54, pigeon10, rupe (large bird)36, tarariki (small bird)36, woodpigeon16,22,94

Heracles inexpectatus St Bathans giant parrot137

Heteralocha acutirostris huia6,7,93, ellia11, huianui (f)99, New Zealand woodpecker135, paoke54

Himantopus sp. tukararoa54

Himantopus himantopus leucocephalus pied stilt10, poaka14, Australasian pied stilt88, barker78, black-throated stilt20, black-winged stilt91, daddy longlegs78, New Zealand stilt43, pied stilt plover16, pip78, popourangi81,99, rerewaka92, stilt78, tarapunga6,9, tōrea6,24,81, torea-iti10,10, toria5, turituri pourewa6,8,36,54,93, turiturupourewa36, turuturu-pourewa54,134, tutumata10, tuturi pourewa24,39,134, tuturu-pourewa54,134, waewae tōrea99, white-headed stilt19, white-necked stilt34, white-necked stilt-plover24

Himantopus novaezelandiae kakī19,81, black stilt10, black stilt plover16, kanohi133, (New Zealand) black stilt51, poaka14, poako11, pōkākā81,99, stilt14, stilt plover12, torea aiti11, torea-iti10,11, tōrea pango24,81,81, tūarahia24,81, tutumata5

Hirundapus caudacutus white-throated needletail94, needle-tailed swift94, northern needletail135, spine-tailed swift34, white-throated needle-tailed swift86

Hirundo neoxena welcome swallow72, warou93, Australian swallow47, house swallow94, Pacific swallow94, swallow86

Hydroprogne caspia Caspian tern16, taranui10,19,36,81, great tern10, kāhawai36,81, New Zealand Caspian tern43, tara14, tara-a-punga36, tara kakao10, tara punga81,99, tara-whaka-rara92, tern14

Hymenolaimus malacorhynchos whio10, blue duck16, blue mountain-duck14,30, he-wee-go11, korowhio54, korowhiowhio93, kōwhiowhio96, lapped bill duck10, mountain duck16,37, parera-kowhio92, soft-billed duck11, whiho11, whiorau8,36, whistling duck85, wio7, wiorau6

Ixobrychus minutus little bittern88; Ixobrychus minutus dubius Australian little bittern88

Ixobrychus novaezelandiae New Zealand little bittern43, kaoriki19, kioriki54, little bittern16, New Zealand bittern109

Kaiika maxwelli Maxwell’s penguin137

Kairuku grebneffi Grebneff’s penguin137

Kairuku waewaeroa Junats’ penguin137

Kairuku waitaki Waitaki penguin137

Korora oliveri Oliver’s penguin90

Kuiornis indicator St Bathans wren137

Kumimanu biceae Bice’s penguin137, colossal penguin137

Kupoupou stilwelli Stilwell’s penguin137

Lalage tricolor white-winged triller79, Australian white-winged triller88, peewee-lark86, white-shouldered caterpillar-eater86

Larus dominicanus southern black-backed gull19, karoro6,7, Antarctic black-backed gull85, black-backed gull4, brown gull10, common gull10, dominican gull83, eagle gull54, kaiē (juv)81, kelp gull85, koiro (ch)24, koriro (ch)54, kōtingotingo (juv)36,81, mollyhawk (juv)135, New Zealand black-backed gull43, ngōiro (ch)19,81, pohio81,92,134, punua (ch)24, rāpunga81, seagull54, southern black-back gull31, tangiharau81, toie (juv)36

Leucocarbo spp. kauau7, kauwau5, kawau93, kōau36,81

Leucocarbo campbelli Campbell Island shag24,35, black-backed cormorant57, Campbell Island cormorant76, Campbell Islands shag115, Campbell shag89, Magellanic shag27, white-rumped cormorant53

Leucocarbo carunculatus New Zealand king shag72, kawau pāteketeke134, carunculated shag86, Cook Strait cormorant86, Cook-Straits cormorant35, king shag79, koau-pateketeke92, Marlborough shag72, Marlborough Sounds shag86, New Zealand king cormorant135, rough-faced cormorant53, rough-faced shag19, te kawau-a-Toru113

Leucocarbo chalconotus Otago shag137, matapo54, bronze cormorant53, bronze shag43, brown shag24, Gray’s shag19, Hutton’s shag24, mapo54, mapua11, parekareka7, pink-footed shag32, Stewart cormorant113, Stewart Island cormorant135, Stewart Island shag72, Stewart shag89, white-rumped cormorant53

Leucocarbo colensoi Auckland Island shag24,35, kawau o Motu Maha122, Auckland cormorant113, Auckland Islands shag43,115, Auckland shag89, white-rumped cormorant53

Leucocarbo onslowi Chatham Island shag52, papua54, Chatham cormorant113, Chatham Island cormorant60, Chatham Islands shag115, Chatham Islands white-breasted shag49, Chatham shag89, emperor shag24, kawau o Rēkohu122, kawau o Wharekauri122, Lord Onslow’s shag35, Onslow’s shag34, Pitt Island shag32

Leucocarbo purpurascens Macquarie Island shag32,35, blue-eyed shag88, emperor shag86, imperial cormorant86, imperial shag88, king shag88, Macquarie Island cormorant57, Macquarie shag89, subantarctic king shag86

Leucocarbo ranfurlyi Bounty Island shag32,35, Bounty cormorant113, Bounty Island cormorant85, Bounty Islands shag43,115, Bounty shag89, Ranfurly’s shag34, white-rumped cormorant53

Leucocarbo septentrionalis kōhatu shag118,128, kawau kōhatu118,137

Leucocarbo stewarti Foveaux shag137, mapo54, bronze cormorant53, bronze shag52, matapo54, Stewart cormorant113, Stewart Island cormorant135, Stewart Island shag32,35, Stewart shag89, white-backed cormorant57, white-rumped cormorant53

Leucophaeus atricilla laughing gull137

Leucophaeus pipixcan Franklin’s gull111

Lewinia muelleri Auckland Island rail32, Auckland Islands rail43,115, Lewin’s rail94

Limnodromus semipalmatus Asiatic dowitcher88, Asian dowitcher95

Limosa haemastica Hudsonian godwit35, American black-tailed godwit78, American godwit48, Hudsonian sandpiper53, hudwit135, red-breasted godwit34

Limosa lapponica bar-tailed godwit19, kuaka6,7,8,81, barred godwit58, barred-rumped godwit19, barwit135, curlew16, godwit10, goodwit16; L. l. baueri eastern bar-tailed godwit72, kuaka6,7,8,81, eastern barred-rumped godwit43, grey stilt14, hakakao (old bird)24, kakao (old bird)36, karoro81, kohikuhikuaka10, kuako54, kuhikuhiwaka54, kuhikuiwaka85, kura (breeding plumage)36, New Zealand godwit21, Pacific bar-tailed godwit78, Pacific godwit86, pāeraera (juv)99, pārerarera (juv)36,81, poaka92, pouaka92, powaka92, rakakao (old bird)36, rīrīwaka11,81, southern godwit24, tapukōrako99, tarakakao36,54,81

Limosa limosa black-tailed godwit88; L. l. melanuroides Asiatic black-tailed godwit78, eastern black-tailed godwit86

Litorallus livezeyi Livezey’s rail137

Lugensa brevirostris Kerguelen petrel72

Macronectes spp giant petrel19, pāngurunguru54,81,134, giant fulmar55,86,86, glutton85,85, nellie85,85, nelly16,27,85, omakura93, pāngurungaru99, sea vulture135, stinker85,85,86, stinkpot56,71,85

Macronectes giganteus southern giant petrel79,89, pāngurunguru54,81,113, Antarctic giant petrel43, white nelly (white morph)35

Macronectes halli northern giant petrel79,89, pāngurunguru54,81,113, Hall’s giant petrel86, New Zealand giant petrel43

Malacorhynchus membranaceus pink-eared duck94, pink-ear135, pink-eye135, pink-eyed duck94, pinkie135, whistler135, whistling teal135, wigeon135, zebra duck135, zebra teal135

Malacorhynchus scarletti Scarlett’s duck90, New Zealand pink-eared duck104

Manu antiquus extinct albatross (?)90

Manuherikia douglasi Douglas’ duck111

Manuherikia lacustrina Manuherikia duck111

Manuherikia minuta minute Manuherikia duck111

Marplesornis novaezealandiae Harris’ penguin90

Matanas enrighti Enright’s duck111

Matuku otagoense St Bathans heron137

Megadyptes antipodes yellow-eyed penguin44, hoiho7,10,93, common penguin14, grand penguin40, great penguin10, hoihoi54,85, korara11, takaraha134, takaraka86, yellow-crested penguin48, yellow-crowned penguin19, yellow-headed penguin27; M. a. waitaha Waitaha penguin111; M. a. richdalei Richdale’s penguin137

Megalapteryx didinus upland moa90, moa pukepuke122

Meleagris gallopavo wild turkey73, korukoru113, feral turkey135, pīpipi6,7, turkey16; M. g. gallopavo Gould’s wild turkey111

Mergus australis Auckland Island merganser24,53, miuweka92, Auckland Islands merganser43,48, Auckland Island’s muganser51, Auckland merganser89, merganser58, New Zealand merganser111, ngutu niniho122, southern merganser32

Mergus milleneri Chatham Island merganser137

Microcarbo melanoleucos little pied cormorant85, little cormorant53,85, little pied shag52; M. m. brevirostris little shag72, kawaupaka19,58,81, aroarotea36, frilled shag16, kauau7, kauwau5, kawau93, kawau tatariki38, kawau teoteo54,81, kawau tīeke (pied morph)54,81, kōau36,81, little river shag86, pohotea81, teoteo36, white-throated shag16

Milvus migrans black kite94, fork-tailed kite94, Kimberley kite135, kite hawk135

Miotadorna sanctibathansi St Bathans shelduck111, St Bathans duck135

Mohoua albicilla whitehead16,32,44, pōpokotea6,10,81, bush canary48, canary33, hihi popokera11,85, hihipopokero14,36, hore36, horehore54, mohoua36, mohua36, mohuahua36, momoroua7, mōriorio54,81, mōtengitengi54,81, ōriorio133, pōpokatea8,11,93, pōporoihewa6,8,81, popotea19, porihawa6,54, poriporihewa36,85, poupoutea19, riroriro92, tātāeko33,36,81, tātāeto33,81, tātāhore36,81, tātaiato7,36,81, tātaihore33,81,99, tātāngaeko36,81, tātaranaeko54,81, tātarangaeko36,81, tātariheko36,81, toitoi5,7, upokotea19, white-headed canary33, whiteheaded tit10

Mohoua novaeseelandiae brown creeper16, pīpipi7,11, brown canary85, brown linnet16, brown wren41, bush creeper44, horirerire11, momohoua5,11, momohua7, New Zealand creeper19, New Zealand titmouse102, pipirihika36, reed wren14, riroriro5,7, tītirihika36,81, titoitoi7,54,81, toetoe5,7, toitoi16

Mohoua ochrocephala mohua36,93, yellowhead16,43,44, bush canary32, canary16, hihi popokera36,54,93, hihipopokero36, hore36, mohoua7, mohoua houa5, mōhuahua36,81, momohua54, native canary33, New Zealand canary85, popokatea5, popokotea6,19, popotea19, poriporihewa36, poupoutea19, South Island canary33, tataeko36, tataeto36, tatahore36, tataiato7,36, tataihore36, tatangaeko36, tatarangaeko36, tatariheko36, tatariki6,92, upokotea19, yellow-head canary30, yellow-headed canary33, yellow-headed flycatcher102

Monarcha melanopsis black-faced monarch111, black-faced flycatcher135, black-faced monarch-flycatcher135, carinated flycatcher135, grey-winged monarch-flycatcher135, pearly-winged flycatcher135

Morus capensis Cape gannet111, South African gannet135

Morus serrator Australasian gannet83, tākapu10,81, Australian gannet19, gannet10, karake36, New Zealand gannet43, Pacific gannet135, solan goose86, taiko7, tākupu6,7,8, tākupu kareke81, tara5, tātākī36,93,99, the gannet48, toroa-haoika24,81, toroa-horoika36,81, toroa tatakī54,81

Muriwaimanu tuatahi Waipara penguin111

Myiagra cyanoleuca satin flycatcher78

Neilus samsonae Sansom’s plover137

Nelepsittacus daphneleeae Lee’s parrot137

Nelepsittacus donmertoni Merton’s parrot137

Nelepsittacus minimus little St Bathans parrot137

Nestor chathamensis Chatham Island kaka101, Chatham Island parrot135, Chatham kaka135, Chatham parrot135

Nestor meridionalis kākā5,8,93, kaka5, brown parrot16, bush parrot86, huripā (var)36,99, kaea54, kaka huripa (var)9, kākā kereru (var)12,54,81, kākā kōrako (var)12,81, kākā kura (var)12,54,81, kaka motaraua (var)9, kākā nihoriki (var)54,81, kākā parakiwai (var)54,134, kaka parrot19, kaka-pipiwarauroa19, kākā pipiwharauroa (var)54,81, kākā reko (var)24,81, karoro tea (var)36,54,81, karoro uri (var)36,54,81, kawkaw135, kēkētoi (fat bird)38,81, kereru (var)36, korako36 (var), kōrī54,81, kōriwhai36,81, kura (var)36, maimoa54, manu-tuauru (var)54, mokai54, motaraua (var)36, moutī (decoy bird)54,81, mū, New Zealand kaka104, niho (var)81, nihonui (var)36,54, nihoriki (var)36,54, pakipaki54, parrot10, perehere36, perua54, pipiriwharauroa (var)36, reko (var)36, southern brown parrot1, tamaire (var)36, tarariki (f)36, tātāapopo (m)36,38,81, tātarariki (flock leader)38,81, tātāriki (flock leader)38,81, tatarikuha (flock leader)54,99, tāwaka (m)38,81, tiaka (flock leader)81, tuaru (var)36, western kaka parrot19, whakakope54; N. m. septentrionalis North Island kaka72, brown kaka52, North Island brown kaka58, North Island kaka parrot43; N. m. meridionalis South Island kaka72, green kaka52, South Island green kaka58, South Island kaka parrot43

Nestor notabilis kea11, alpine parrot85, green parrot22, kaieo22, kea parrot19, keha24, keorangi54, kia81, mountain parrot14,19, New Zealand mountain parrot135

Ninox albifacies laughing owl16,19, whēkau19,81, big morepork92, big owl85, hakoke36, kakaha19, kopake93, laughing jackass16,19, open country owl92, rock owl86, ruruwekau11, ruru-whēkau19,81,81,99, ruru-whenua92, wekau11, wekaukau54, whēkaukau36,81; N. a. rufifacies North Island laughing owl43, rufous-faced owl34, rufous laughing owl73; N. a. albifacies South Island laughing owl43

Ninox novaeseelandiae ruru6, morepork10,13,19, boobook94, boobook owl53, common owl10, eou hou11, herooroo11, heruru13, kao-kao11,85, karu peho (large-eyed)99, koukou5,6,8,13, kuru39, morepork owl51, New Zealand owl19, North Island morepork owl43, peho14, pehopeho36, peopeo92, piopio92, ruru koukou92,92, rurupeho5,22, ruru-ruru11,36,85, South Island morepork owl43, southern boobook97

Notiomystis cincta hihi7,113, stitchbird16,19,48, hihi-matakiore (f)19, hihi-paka (m)14,19, hihi-pakawera36, hioi11, honey-bird85, ihe133, ihi5, kōhihi (m)6,36,81, kōtihe5,81, kōtihe wera (m)19,54,81,134, kōtihetihe (m)6,7,8,54,81, kotihetike (m)85, matakiore (f)36, mōtihe133, mōtihetihe36,81, pogonornis100, tihe10, tihe-kiore (f)19, tihe-ora (m)24,54, tihe-wai (f)36,38, tihe-wera (m)36,38, tihi-kiore (f)85, tihi-ora (m)85, tiora (m)24, tioria93, tīoro54,81, yellowwinged finch10

Numenius hudsonicus American whimbrel72, Hudsonian curlew72, Hudsonian whimbrel73

Numenius madagascariensis eastern curlew73, Australian curlew24, curlew52, far-eastern curlew83,84, long-billed curlew72

Numenius minutus little whimbrel34, least whimbrel135, little curlew86, pygmy curlew86

Numenius phaeopus Eurasian whimbrel137, little curlew86, whimbrel52; N. p. variegatus Asiatic whimbrel72, Australian whimbrel34, eastern whimbrel73

Numenius tahitiensis bristle-thighed curlew79

Numida meleagris helmeted guineafowl86, crowned guineafowl86, guineafowl16,72,86, guineahen113, pintado86, tufted guineafowl84,86

Nycticorax caledonicus nankeen night heron19, Umu kōtuku135, Australian night heron43, Caledonian night-heron3, night heron14,53, rufous night heron73

Oceanites oceanicus Wilson’s storm petrel24,52,89, Australian yellow-webbed storm-petrel43, Wilson’s petrel85, yellow-webbed storm petrel48,53

Oceanodroma leucorhoa Leach’s storm petrel86,89, fork-tailed storm petrel73, Leach’s fork-tail petrel57, Leach’s fork-tailed petrel72, Leach’s fork-tailed storm petrel78, Leach’s petrel86

Onychoprion anaethetus bridled tern88, brown-winged tern88

Onychoprion fuscatus sooty tern32, Australian sooty tern43, egg bird85, whale bird86, wideawake78, wideawake tern56,85

Onychoprion lunatus grey-backed tern111, spectacled tern115

Oxyura vantetsi New Zealand blue-billed duck111, blue-billed duck88, New Zealand stiff-tailed duck109

Pachydyptes ponderosus New Zealand giant penguin90, greater wide-flippered penguin52

Pachyornis australis crested moa90, moa koukou122

Pachyornis elephantopus heavy-footed moa90, moa waewae taumaha122

Pachyornis geranoides Mantell’s moa109, moa ruarangi122, Mappin’s moa90

Pachyptila spp. hakora36, taketake36, tarapunga6,36, totorore36, whiroia36

Pachyptila belcheri thin-billed prion48, korotangi54, narrow-billed prion72, slender-billed prion86

Pachyptila crassirostris fulmar prion72, cliff prion86, fulmar-billed prion55, thick-billed prion86; P. c. crassirostris, Bounty Island prion73, Bounty Islands dove-petrel43; P. c. pyramidalis Chatham fulmar prion72, Pyramid Rock prion73; P. c. flemingi lesser fulmar prion72

Pachyptila desolata Antarctic prion72, totorore81,113, Auckland Island prion72, Auckland Islands’ dove-petrel43, Banks’ dove-petrel21, Bank’s petrel54, Banks’s dove petrel19, Banks’s petrel35, blue petrel85, dove-petrel34,35, dove prion48, Kerguelen prion88, pekehā7,93, South Georgian prion72, totore133, whalebird16,40,72, whiroia32

Pachyptila salvini Salvin’s prion86, Crozet Island prion72, Crozet Islands prion86, lesser broad-billed prion72, Marion Island prion73, medium-billed prion86

Pachyptila turtur fairy prion48, tītī wainui44,44,54,81,93, ariel prion54, Chatham fairy prion55, Chatham Island dove petrel49, dove-petrel19,30, dove prion113, flake-billed fairy prion55, Gould’s dove petrel24, laughing jackass16, narrow-billed prion65, northern fairy prion73, short-billed dove petrel34, smooth-billed fairy prion55, southern fairy prion73, subantarctic fairy prion73, tītī96, totorore24, whale-bird13,16, whiroia19

Pachyptila vittata broad-billed prion48, pararā44,81, blue billy60,86, broad-billed dove petrel19, broad-billed petrel11, New Zealand broad-billed prion43, parera44, parikoko92, pekehā7,81, pepekehā54,81, scooper86, southern prion20, tītī96, whalebird11,72

Palaeeudyptes antarcticus Huxley’s penguin137, narrow-flippered penguin52

Palaeeudyptes marplesi Marples’ penguin90

Palaelodus aotearoa New Zealand palaelodus137

Passer domesticus house sparrow33,72, tiu99, English sparrow86, kai witi92, manukino92, spadger86, sparrow16

Pavo cristatus peafowl47,72, pīkao93, common peafowl113, Indian peafowl86, peacock (m)16, peahen (f)113, pīkake (m)113

Pelagodroma albiclunis Kermadec storm petrel72, Kermadec Island storm petrel101, Kermadec white-faced storm petrel73

Pelagodroma marina white-faced storm petrel19,40, takahikare81, frigate petrel86; P. m. dulciae Australian white-faced storm petrel86; P. m. maoriana New Zealand white-faced storm petrel43,73, takahikare81, dancing dolly86, J.C. bird78, Jesus Christ bird78, kaiwhakararu93, Mother Carey’s bird113, Mother Carey’s chicken135, skipjack78, takahikare rangi81, takahikare raro81, takahikare-moana64,78,81,93, tītī96

Pelagornis stirtoni Stirton’s pseudotoothed bird137, Stirton’s false-toothed pelican90

strong>?Pelagornis miocaenus Miocene pseudotoothed bird137, Miocene false-toothed pelican90

Pelecanoides georgicus South Georgian diving petrel52,89, South Georgia diving-petrel124, sub-Antarctic diving-petrel113; P. g. whenuahouensis Whenua Hou diving petrel129, kuaka Whenua Hou129, Codfish diving-petrel124, tītī96

Pelecanoides miokuaka Miocene diving petrel111

Pelecanoides urinatrix common diving petrel52,89, kuaka44,122, dipchick78, diver135, diving petrel11,60, larger diving petrel34, small diving petrel57, smaller diving petrel34, teetee11, tītī11,96; P. u. urinatrix northern diving petrel72, New Zealand diving petrel86; P. u. chathamensis southern diving petrel72, Chatham Island diving petrel73, Richdale’s diving petrel101; P. u. exsul subantarctic diving petrel72,78, Kerguelen diving petrel53

Pelecanus conspicillatus Australian pelican52, perikana93,134, eastern Australian pelican43, New Zealand pelican88, pelican53, spectacled pelican86

Petrochelidon ariel fairy martin88, bottle swallow135, cliff swallow135, land swallow135

Petrochelidon nigricans tree martin86, Australian tree martin52,78, Australian tree-swallow19,43, tree swallow78

Petroica australis & P. longipes bush robin86, hātoitoi36,81, kakaruawai85, kakaruwai36, karae99, karuae36, karuai54, karuwai36, kātoitoi10,36,81, kātuhituhi81, miromiro5,7,10, mōioio54,81, mokorā (f)36,81, New Zealand robin53, New Zealand wood robins32, pie99, piere36,99, pīhaua7,81, pīhere36,81, pirangirangi85, pītoitoi6,8,10, 36,81, robin10,51, tarapō (f)8,134, tariwai54, taruwai54, tātaruwai36,81, tātāwai7, 54,81, tītīketeketemanawa (call)36,134, tītīwahanui36,54,81, toitoireka36, toroire99, totawara7, tōtōara9,81, totoi54, totoireka36, tōtōrori81,99, tōtōwai81, tōtōwara36,81, toutou6,8,19, toutouai7, toutouwai7,14,81, wheko-pō54,54,81,134, wood robin16

Petroica australis South Island robin19,35, kakaruai92, alpine robin34, kakariwai92, South Island wood-robin30,32, southern robin63, stonechat10, white-fronted thrush11; P. a. rakiura Stewart Island robin72, toutouwai96

Petroica longipes North Island robin19, toutouwai19, North Island wood robin32

Petroica macrocephala tomtit49,85, brown tit10, butcherbird78,102, hōmiromiro36,54,81, kikitore99, kikitori54, kōmiromiro6,7,19,19,36,81, large-headed tit10, large-headed tomtit53,85, māuipōtiki36,54,81,81,93,134, mīmiro36,54,99, miromiro5,6,8,10,19,99, mirumiru36,54, New Zealand tit32, New Zealand tomtit53,88, ngirungiru5,7, pīmiromiro24,24,36,99,134, pīmirumiru6,8,36,54,81,134, pīngirungiru24,24,36,54,93,134, pipitore54,81, pipitori7,24,24,36, pīrangirangi5,7,81,134, robin14, tāne-te-waiora36,54,81,85,93, tarapō (f)6,8,36,81, tit22, toitoi10,36, wheedler78; P. m. toitoi North Island tomtit24, miromiro19, mirotoitoi7, nirungiru11, North Island tit86, pied tit16,37, pied tomtit102, pitongatonga54, to-i-toe5, white-breasted tit10,32, white-breasted tomtit73; P. m. macrocephala South Island tomtit24,44, ngirungiru19,32, great-headed titmouse11, mirro mirro11, pirau133, piropiro36, South Island tit35,54, southern tit44, southern tomtit102, yellow breast tit22, yellow-breasted robin22, yellow-breasted tit10,16, yellow-breasted tomtit73; P. m. chathamensis Chatham Island tomtit73, miromiro29, Chatham Island tit72, Chatham Islands’ tomtit43, yellow-breasted tit61; P. m. dannefaerdi Snares Island tomtit73, miromiro96, black robin56, black tit79, black tomtit27, little wood robin32, Snares black tit72, Snares Island robin34,35, Snares robin40, Snares tit86, Snares tomtit103; P. m. marrineri Auckland Island tomtit73, Auckland Island tit72, Auckland Islands’ tomtit43

Petroica traversi black robin48, karure130, black wood robin32, Chatham Island black robin85, Chatham Island robin19, Chatham Island tit21, Chatham Islands robin43,53, kakaruai98

Phaethon lepturus white-tailed tropicbird73,83, bo’sun bird86, longtail135, marlin-spike135, white-tailed bosunbird135, yellow-billed tropicbird86,111

Phaethon rubricauda red-tailed tropicbird24,53,88, amokura24, bosun bird86,115, hawe7, rakorakoa54, ruddy tropic bird43, strawtail78, tawake81,135, western Pacific red-tailed tropic bird73

Phalacrocorax spp. kaha92, kahia92, kauau6,7, kauwau5,9, kawau9,13,16,93, kōau36,54,81,85,93, koauteko92, rori92

Phalacrocorax carbo great cormorant86, common cormorant35; P. c. novaehollandiae black shag16, māpunga54,81,99, black cormorant35, common black shag54, cormorant16, great black shag22, great green cormorant10, great shag18, houmea54, kaihau54, kauau nui10, kauau pango10, kauau tua-whenua10,11, kawau14, kawau-maro54, kawau pū54,81, kawau tuawhenua22,54,81, koau-mapua92, koau-pango92, large black shag113, māpo93, māpua99, matapo81,93, matapu38,99, New Zealand cormorant54, papu38, pāpua38,81, sea shag34, shag14, whitethighed cormorant10

Phalacrocorax featherstoni Pitt Island shag52, kawau o Rangihaute122, Chatham Island cormorant53, Chatham Island shag19,35, Chatham Islands’ shag43, double-crested shag60, kawau o Rangiauria122, Pitt Island cormorant60, Pitt Island spotted shag49, Pitt shag89

Phalacrocorax punctatus spotted shag11, kawau tikitiki54,81, blue shag52, crested cormorant10, crested shag20, flip-flap20, kauau pari10, kawau pāteketeke54,81, king shag30, koau tai92, ocean shag20, pa-degga-degga11, papua54, pārekareka36,81, pāteketeke81, spotted cormorant53

Phalacrocorax sulcirostris little black shag31, kawau tūī54,81,93, black shag34, little black cormorant53

Phalacrocorax varius pied cormorant53; P. v. varius pied shag11, kāruhiruhi6,9,81, aroarotea81, kauāu8,10, large pied shag135, māpunga93, teoteo93, yellow-faced cormorant86

Phalaropus fulicaria grey phalarope24, red phalarope52

Phalaropus lobatus red-necked phalarope53, northern phalarope52

Phalaropus tricolor Wilson’s phalarope88

Phasianus colchicus common pheasant22, peihana93, black-necked pheasant86, Chinese pheasant16, English pheasant16, Mongolian pheasant86, pheasant72, ringed pheasant47, ring-necked pheasant88

Philesturnus spp. saddleback16,28,43, tīeke8,11,93, pūrourou5,8,81, redbacked thrush10, saddle bird14, tiaka11, tiakanga133, tiake5, tiaki7,11, tīeke-rere36,54,81, tieki7, tierawaki7, tira-ouake5,11, tīraueke54,81, tīrauweke19,81, tīraweke14,81, wattled stare3

Philesturnus carunculatus South Island saddleback72, tīeke5,93, jackbird (juv)24,56, southern saddleback66

Philesturnus rufusater North Island saddleback72, tīeke93, urourou36

Phoebastria immutabilis Laysan albatross111

Phoebastria nigripes black-footed albatross72, black-footed mollymawk53, black gooney86

Phoebetria fusca sooty albatross48, Australian sooty albatross43

Phoebetria palpebrata light-mantled sooty albatross48, toroa pango11,24, Cape hen16, grey-mantled albatross53, kōputa93, kōputu54,81, New Zealand light-mantled sooty albatross43, pee-arr85, pee-oo86, pēō134, piew85, pio85, sooty albatross19, torea-pango19, toroa-a-ruru54,99, toroa haunui7,14,54, toroa ruru54,81

Pikaihao bartlei Bartle’s bittern137, St Bathans bittern135

Platalea flavipes yellow-billed spoonbill83

Platalea regia royal spoonbill24, kōtuku ngutupapa24,81,93,111, black-billed spoonbill53,135, koutuku ngutu-papa10,11, kuru whengi93, spoonbill10

Platycercus eximius eastern rosella52, kākā uhi whero122, Rose-hill parakeet47, rosella47, roselle parakeet47, white-cheeked rosella135

Platydyptes amiesi Amies’ penguin90

Platydyptes marplesi Simpson’s penguin111

Platydyptes novaezealandiae wide-flippered penguin90, lesser wide-flippered penguin52

Plegadis falcinellus glossy ibis34

Pleistorallus flemingi Fleming’s rail111

Pluvialis dominicus American golden plover91

Pluvialis fulva Pacific golden plover72, kuriri134, Asiatic golden plover78, eastern golden plover19, golden plover16, least golden plover83, lesser golden plover48, pakihitaki11, spotted plover32, tuturiwatu14, tuturiwhata11, tuturuata11

Pluvialis squatarola grey plover72, black-bellied plover86, grey sandpiper135, silver plover135

Podiceps cristatus great crested grebe19; P. c. australis Australasian crested grebe88, pūteketeke52,93, crested grebe10, diver85, kāha36,81, kāmana38,81, manapou38, New Zealand crested grebe43, pāteketeke24,81, southern crested grebe72,77, totokepio133

Poliocephalus poliocephalus hoary-headed grebe83, taihoropī93, hoary-headed dabchick86, Tom Pudding86

Poliocephalus rufopectus New Zealand dabchick19, weweia19, dabchick16,16, diver92, grebe56, koikoipia36, little grebe10, New Zealand grebe113, red-necked grebe85, taihoropī24,81, taratimoho24, taratitomohi36, tekotekopia36, tokitoki7,36, tokitokipia36, tokitokipio54, tongitongipia36, torokipia85, totoipio54, totokipia36, totokipio11, weiweia10, whiroia93, whirowhiro36

Poodytes punctatus fernbird24,44,56, mātātā5,81, common utick85, grassbird14,16,108, grass-pheasant85, haumata92, koretī134, koroātito9,81, korowātito7,81, kōtātā6,8,11,81, kūkurutoki36,81, maata54, maataa92, mātā5,81,96, mataa92, mātuhi54,81, nako19, New Zealand fernbird101, ngako54, potata133, reed sparrow44, reed wren10, swamp-bird85, swamp-lark27, swamp sparrow108, swamp thrush86, tataki92, tataki thrush78, toetoe11, toitoi92, tutaki92, utick85, wetito54, whetito54; P. p. vealeae North Island fernbird43,72, koroātito93, common utick19; P. p. punctatus South Island fernbird43,72, mātātā93, fulvous fern-bird24, fulvous utick19; P. p. stewartiana Stewart Island fernbird72, mātā96; P. p. wilsoni Codfish Island fernbird73, mātā96, Codfish fernbird72; P. p. caudatus Snares Island fernbird43,73, mātā96, Snares fernbird34,56, tawny fernbird32,108, The Snares fernbird113

Poodytes rufescens Chatham Island fernbird24,48,61, Chatham Island utick19, Chatham Islands fern-bird43,51

Porphyrio hochstetteri South Island takahe92, takahē9,81, Mantell’s notornis19, moho7,8, moho keo36,81, moho rākau54,81, moho rangi54,81, notornis10, pass bird86, takahea14, tokohea19

Porphyrio mantelli North Island takahe88, moho8,14,81, extinct takahe52, mohoau135

Porphyrio porphyrio pūkeko5,8, pukeko5, Australasian swamphen135, Australian swamphen101, Chatham Island pukeko61, Chatham Island swamp hen49, Chatham Islands’ swamp-hen43, eastern swamp-hen53, moorhen10, old swampie84, pakaki45, pākura6,8, pook78, pukaki78, puke86, purple gallinule85, purple swamphen88, rauhara9, southwest Pacific swamphen111,115, swamphen14,19,88, tangata-tawhito54,81

Porzana fluminea Australian crake91, Australian spotted crake79

Priscaweka parvales Bannockburn crake137

Proapteryx micromeros St Bathans kiwi137

Procellaria aequinoctialis white-chinned petrel32, karetai kauae mā122, Cape hen53, New Zealand white-chinned petrel43, oi11, shoemaker73, stink-pot40, stink-pot petrel34, storm petrel10, takupu11

Procellaria altirostris deep-billed petrel137

Procellaria cinerea grey petrel34, kuia24, black-tailed petrel135, black-tailed shearwater135, brown petrel16, great grey shearwater85, hākuikui54,81, night-hawk85, pediunker72

Procellaria parkinsoni black petrel19, tāiko8,11,81, black fulmar89, brown petrel85, karetai54, kuia24, kuihi93, night demon85, Parkinson’s petrel59, ruru-tāiko54,81,81, tākoketai120,125, taonui39, toanui16,32, tuanui93

Procellaria westlandica Westland petrel88, tāiko113,134, tītī96, Westland black petrel72, Westland shoemaker73

Procelsterna cerulea blue-grey noddy86; P. c. albivitta grey noddy25, blue-billy86, grey ternlet72, little blue petrel86, little grey noddy43, little grey tern53, little noddy24

Prosthemadera novaeseelandiae tūī4,8,81, tui5, Auckland Islands’ tui43, kogo11, kōkō6,81,81, kōkōtaua (m)54,81, kōkōtea (f)38,54, kōkōuri (m)38,81, kopureha54, kōpūrehe (m)38,81, kouwha (f)38, kukari (ch)36, mocking bird10, North Island tui43, parson bird10,30,98, pi (ch)7,9, pikari (ch)9, pikōkō6,8, pi-tui (ch)19,58, poe5, poe bird85, poey bird100, pōhe11, pureke (juv)9, rōghee etooee11, South Island tui43, tākaha (m)36,81, teoteo (f)36, toi5, toui11, tui-koko10,14, tui-teoteo (f)54, tute (m)36; P. n. chathamensis Chatham Island tui61, kōkō29,98

Protodontopteryx ruthae Ruth’s pseudotoothed bird137

Prunella modularis dunnock72, British hedge sparrow72, hedge accentor40,113, hedge sparrow22,40,83, hedgie78

Pseudobulweria rostrata Tahiti petrel88

Pterodroma alba Phoenix petrel72, Christmas Island petrel73, Pacific petrel48, Phoenix Island petrel52, short-billed petrel53, small-billed petrel57, white-bellied petrel53

Pterodroma axillaris Chatham petrel88, ranguru73, Chatham Island petrel32, Chatham Islands’ blue-footed petrel43, Chatham Islands petrel115, karetai93, Salvin’s petrel34

Pterodroma brevipes collared petrel137, magnificent petrel135

Pterodroma cervicalis white-naped petrel83, black-capped petrel32, Salvin’s capped petrel35, Sunday Island petrel34, white-necked petrel89

Pterodroma cookii Cook’s petrel19,52, blue-footed petrel43, e-titi11, tītī5,8,81, white-winged petrel;48 Pt. c. cookii northern Cook’s petrel137; Pt. c. orientalis southern Cook’s petrel137

Pterodroma externa Juan Fernandez petrel83, white-necked petrel86

Pterodroma gouldi grey-faced petrel16, ōi36,81, Gould’s petrel85, gray-faced petrel124, great-winged petrel53, grey-headed petrel103, kuia (juv)75, long-winged petrel19, muttonbird86, New Zealand grey-faced petrel43, New Zealand mutton bird54, northern muttonbird94, ohi85, oii24, sooty petrel85, titi75

Pterodroma heraldica Herald petrel137

Pterodroma imberi Imber’s petrel137

Pterodroma inexpectata mottled petrel24, kōrure73,99, Dawson’s petrel50, karae92, korari52, laughing petrel24, mottled fulmar40, pakahā93, Peale’s petrel86, rainbird32,52, scaled petrel85, tītī86,96

Pterodroma lessonii white-headed petrel16, eastern white-headed petrel43

Pterodroma leucoptera Gould’s petrel78, Gould petrel72, sooty-capped petrel135, white-throated petrel135, white-winged fulmar135, white-winged petrel135; Pt. l. caledonica New Caledonian petrel86

Pterodroma longirostris Stejneger’s petrel78

Pterodroma magentae Chatham Island taiko79, tāiko84,135, Chatham Islands taiko115, Chatham taiko104, Magenta petrel55, tchaik86

Pterodroma mollis soft-plumaged petrel24

Pterodroma neglecta Kermadec petrel48, pia koia85, doubtful petrel24, karetai Rangitahua122, Kermadec Island mutton bird32, Kermadec Islands’ petrel43, Kermadec muttonbird85, Kermadec petrel “summer”48, Kermadec petrel “winter”48, neglected petrel55, Phillip’s fulmar85, Schlegel’s petrel34, summer surface mutton bird85, winter petrel56

Pterodroma nigripennis black-winged petrel35, karetai kapa mangu122, Kermadec blue-footed petrel43, Rothschild’s petrel34

Pterodroma pycrofti Pycroft’s petrel52,72

Pterodroma solandri providence petrel88, big-hill muttonbird86, bird of providence72, brown-headed petrel86, Mount Pitt bird135, Phillips’ petrel34, Solander’s petrel86

Ptilinopus regina rose-crowned fruit-dove137, pink-capped fruit-dove135, red-crowned fruit-dove111, Swainson’s fruit-dove135

Puffinus spp. hakoakoa7, hakuakua36, titi-wahine92

Puffinus assimilis little shearwater53, totorore52, allied shearwater24, mutton-bird11,14, small shearwater25, whistler86, titi14; P. a. assimilis Norfolk Island little shearwater79, allied petrel43, Norfolk Island allied shearwater72; P. a. kermadecensis Kermadec little shearwater79, allied petrel43, Kermadec allied shearwater72, Kermadec Island little shearwater101; P. a. haurakiensis North Island little shearwater79, New Zealand allied shearwater73, New Zealand little shearwater104, North Island allied shearwater72

Puffinus elegans subantarctic little shearwater79, allied shearwater52, Chatham Island allied shearwater73, Chatham Islands’ allied petrel43, Giglioli’s shearwater85, subantarctic allied shearwater72, subantarctic shearwater124, Tristan shearwater85

Puffinus gavia fluttering shearwater52, pakahā36,81, brown-backed petrel43, brown-beaked shearwater89, flutterer135, Forster’s petrel89, Forster’s shearwater19, hākoakoa8,13,81, hākuakua81, laughing jackass16, New Zealand allied petrel43, pakahaa24, rainbird16,24, shearwater16, takaha54, wet-bird16,16

Puffinus huttoni Hutton’s shearwater72,73, Kaikōura tītī116, muttonbird86, pakahā86,113, Snares brown-backed petrel43, tītī86,96

Puffinus nativitatis Christmas Island shearwater83, black shearwater86, Christmas shearwater84, Kiritimati shearwater135

Puffinus newelli Newell’s shearwater111, black-vented shearwater135

Puffinus puffinus Manx shearwater83, common shearwater86

Puffinus spelaeus Scarlett’s shearwater101, ōiruki122

Pygoscelis adeliae Adelie penguin73,73

Pygoscelis antarctica chinstrap penguin79, bearded penguin86, ringed penguin86

Pygoscelis papua gentoo penguin72, jackass penguin85, Johnny86, Johnny penguin86, rock-hopper24,32,85; P. p. papua northern gentoo penguin88

Pygoscelis tyreei Tyree’s penguin90

Recurvirostra novaehollandiae red-necked avocet19, piwari10, Australian avocet72, Australian red-necked avocet88, avocet10, cobbler135, cobbler’s awl135, eastern red-necked avocet43, painted lady135, red-necked stilt85, scooper135, trumpeter135, yelper135

Rhipidura fuliginosa New Zealand fantail53, pīwakawaka5,7,8,81, black fantail16,16, black flycatcher12, diggowaghwagh11, fantail14, fan-tailed flycatcher2,10, grey fantail88, hee-waka-waka11, hinai85, hīrairaka36,81, hītakataka36,81, hīwai54,81, hīwaiwaka36,81, hīwakawaka6,8,11, kōtiutiu54,81, pied fantail16,16, pied fantail-flycatcher35, pied flycatcher22, pi-oua-ka-oua-ka11, pīrairaka24,81, pīrakaraka36,93, pīrangirangi54,81, pītakataka24,81, pīwaiwaka19,81, sooty fantail-flycatcher35, tewakawaka7,11, tīaiaka36,99, tīaka81, tīakaaka36,81, tieaka36, tīrairaka24,81, tīrairaka pango (black morph)134, tīrakaraka7,9,81, tiraueka54, tīraueke93, tīraureka36,81, tītaiwaka92,123, tītakataka36,81, tītīrairaka36,81, titiwaiko10, tiwaewaka7, tiwaikawaka22, tīwaiwaka14,81, tīwakawaka10,16,81, wakawaka54; R. f. placabilis North Island fantail72, North Island pied fantail43; R. f. fuliginosa South Island fantail72, South Island pied fantail43; R. f. penita Chatham Island fantail72, tchitake29, Chatham fantail61, Chatham Island pied fantail73, Chatham Islands’ pied fantail73

Rhipidura leucophrys willie wagtail111, black-and-white fantail135, black-and-white flycatcher135, fantail flycatcher135, pied fantail135, shepherd’s companion135, water wagtail135, white-browed fantail135

Rostratula benghalensis painted snipe88, Australian painted snipe135

Rupephaps taketake St Bathans pigeon111

Scythrops novaehollandiae channel-billed cuckoo72, channel-bill73, flood bird86, flying walking-stick135, storm bird86

Sequiwaimanu rosieae Rosie’s penguin137

Spatula clypeata northern shoveler79

Spatula rhynchotis Australasian shoveler88, kuruwhengi19,93, hoho92, kāhoho19,81, kukupaki11, kūkuruwhetū54,81,99, kukuruwhitu92, kuruengo7, kuruhenga99, kuruwhengu24, kuruwhetu133, New Zealand shoveler72, New Zealand shoveller19, papaungūngu99, papaunguungu24,54, pāteke24,81, paungu-ungu85, pakau-kuku10, pikau-kuku11, pūtaitai19,81, rangi-tauharuru10,11, shoveler22, shoveler duck54, shoveller10, shoveller duck28, spoonbill14,54, spoonbill duck19,58, spoonie78, tataa92, tētē14,81, wetawetangū19,81, whetawetangu85

Stercorarius antarctica southern skua19,85, great skua48,95, southern great skua83; C. a. lonnbergi subantarctic skua86, hākoakoa8,54,73,81, Antarctic great skua76, Antarctic skua113, bonxie85, brown skua86, dark southern skua53, hakaokao36, hakoko54, hākuakua36,54,81, New Zealand great skua43, plundering gull85, pohio81,92, raptorial gull4, sea-hawk32,40,56,85, sea hen14,16, skua gull27, southern skua gull71

Stercorarius longicaudus long-tailed skua79, long-tailed jaeger86

Stercorarius maccormicki South Polar skua43, Antarctic skua52, MacCormick’s skua34, McCormick’s skua86

Stercorarius parasiticus Arctic skua43, Arctic jaeger95, Buffon’s skua19, parasitic jaeger52, parasitic skua113, Richardson’s skua24, Richardson’s skua gull31, skua gull16

Stercorarius pomarinus pomarine skua72, pomarine jaeger73, pomatorhine skua86

Sterna hirundo common tern88; S. h. longipennis eastern common tern88

Sterna paradisaea Arctic tern52

Sterna striata white-fronted tern19, tara6,7,8,16, Auckland Islands white-fronted tern43, barracouta bird85,92, black-billed tern95, blackcap78,86, black-legged tern10, grenadier78, kahawai bird78, New Zealand white-fronted tern43, noddy78, sea-swallow16,19, southern tern95, southern white-fronted tern119, swallowtail78, tara iti93,93, tara kakao93, tara nui10, tara pirohe92, tikkitak78, whale bird22, whitefront tern92

Sterna vittata Antarctic tern69, southern tern34, subantarctic tern48,51,52, swallow-tailed tern32; S. v. bethunei New Zealand Antarctic tern88, Bethune’s tern34, New Zealand subantarctic tern43

Sternula albifrons little tern78, black-lored tern86, sea-swallow86, white-shafted ternlet86; S. a. sinensis eastern little tern79, tara teo93,134, Asiatic little tern86, tara iti134, tara teoteo54,134

Sternula nereis fairy tern48; S. n. davisae New Zealand fairy tern43, tara iti19,36,81, little tern10, little white tern19, tara paku10, tara-teo54,81,81, tara-teoteo54,81, tara-titi58

Streptopelia chinensis spotted dove78, Chinese dove135, Indian spotted dove73, laceneck78, laceneck dove86, Malay spotted dove72, pearl-necked dove135, spotted-necked dove78, spotted turtledove86,94, turtle dove78

Streptopelia risoria Barbary dove83, African collared dove113, African ring-necked dove135, domestic collared dove86, Java dove86, ring dove16, ring-neck dove113, ringed turtle dove86

Strigops habroptila kākāpō7,81, kakapo7, great night parrot10, ground parrot14,19, kākātarapō6,8,36,81, night parrot12, North Island kakapo43, owl parrot19,94, South Island kakapo43, tarapō6,7,8,81, tarepō9,81, tātarapō54,81, tātarapū93

Sturnus vulgaris common starling52, tāringi99, European starling135, starling16

Sula dactylatra masked booby72, blue-faced booby52, masked gannet26, Tasman booby115, whistling booby86, white booby86

Sula leucogaster brown booby52, Brewster’s booby86, brown gannet34, common booby86, white-bellied booby86

Sula sula red-footed booby137, red-legged gannet16; S. s. rubripes Indo-Pacific red-footed booby137; S. s. websteri eastern Pacific red-footed booby137

Tachybaptus novaehollandiae eastern little grebe88, little grebe113, tricolored grebe113; T. n. novaehollandiae Australasian little grebe79, tokitokipio93, Australasian grebe89, Australian dabchick86, Australian grebe135, Australian little grebe86, black-throated grebe86

Tadorna tadornoides chestnut-breasted shelduck73, Australian shelduck86, chestnut shelduck135, chestnut-coloured shelduck135, grunter135, mountain duck86, mountain shelduck135

Tadorna variegata paradise shelduck83, pūtangitangi5,7,81, New Zealand sheldrake19, painted duck85, paradise duck5,53, pari86, parrie113, pooa dugghie dugghie11, pūpūtangi-ā-tama36,81,81, pūpūtangi-ā-toa36,81, pūtakitaki11,81, putangetangi14, putangitange15, pūtangitangi-ā-tama8,36,81,99, pūtangitangi-ā-toa8,36,81,99, pututangiatama7, Rangitata goose78, sheldrake28, variegated goose11

Tereingaornis moisleyi Moisley’s penguin90

Thalassarche spp. toroa8,36, toroa teoteo81, totoria92

Thalassarche bulleri Buller’s albatross34, toroa113, Buller’s mollymawk52,72, white-capped mollymawk32; T. b. bulleri southern Buller’s albatross101, toroa137, Snares Island mollymawk43, southern Buller’s mollymawk86; T. b. platei northern Buller’s albatross101, Chatham Island Buller’s mollymawk82, hopo (ch)106, northern Buller’s mollymawk86, Pacific albatross103, Pacific mollymawk106

Thalassarche carteri Indian Ocean yellow-nosed albatross111, Carter’s mollymawk135, east Australian yellow-nosed mollymawk43, eastern yellow-nosed mollymawk119, Indian Ocean yellow-nosed mollymawk113, Indian yellow-nosed albatross103, Indian yellow-nosed mollymawk106, yellow-nosed albatross19, yellow-nosed mollymawk32

Thalassarche cauta white-capped albatross101,101, toroa113, Bounty Island mollymawk48, Layard’s albatross35, shy albatross24, shy mollymawk58, white-capped mollymawk52,52; T. c. cauta Tasmanian albatross111, shy albatross113, Tasmanian mollymawk113, Tasmanian shy albatross124; T. c. steadi New Zealand white-capped albatross111, Auckland shy albatross124, New Zealand shy mollymawk88, New Zealand white-capped mollymawk88

Thalassarche chlororhynchos Atlantic yellow-nosed albatross111, Atlantic yellow-nosed mollymawk88, western yellow-nosed albatross135, western yellow-nosed mollymawk135, yellow-nosed albatross89, yellow-nosed mollymawk88

Thalassarche chrysostoma grey-headed albatross19, toroa113, Campbell Island flat-billed mollymawk43, flat-billed mollymawk48, grey-headed mollymawk32

Thalassarche eremita Chatham Island albatross101, toroa98, Chatham albatross103, Chatham Island mollymawk52, Chatham Islands mollymawk115, Chatham mollymawk113, hopo (ch)98

Thalassarche impavida Campbell black-browed albatross111, toroa24, Australian black-browed mollymawk43, black-browed mollymawk48, black-eyebrowed albatross19, Campbell albatross103, Campbell black-browed mollymawk135, Campbell Island albatross101, Campbell Island mollymawk113, Campbell Islands albatross115, Campbell Islands mollymawk115, Campbell mollymawk135, common mollymawk40, mollymawk16,32, New Zealand black-browed mollymawk72, torea19, yellow-billed mollymawk56

Thalassarche melanophris black-browed albatross35, toroa81, black-browed mollymawk72, king gannet135

Thalassarche salvini Salvin’s albatross34, toroa113, Bounty Island mollymawk43, grey-backed mollymawk32, Salvin’s mollymawk72, shy albatross35, white-capped albatross59, white-capped mollymawk52

Thalasseus bergii crested tern48, Fijian crested tern43, great crested tern135, greater crested tern86, swift tern86, yellow-billed tern135

Thalassoica antarctica Antarctic petrel24

Thinornis novaeseelandiae shore plover48, tuturuatu19, Auckland Island plover40, doodooroo attoo11, kohutapu24, kukuruatu11, masked plover91, New Zealand plover11, New Zealand sand-plover19, New Zealand shore plover24,51, sand plover16, shore dotterel113, stone plover85, tuturuatu19

Threskiornis molucca white ibis86, Australian white ibis52

Threskiornis spinicollis straw-necked ibis115

Todiramphus sanctus sacred kingfisher52; T. s. vagans New Zealand kingfisher19, kōtare7,81, ghotarre11, kingfisher10,13, kōkare54,99, kōtarepopo5,11,36,81,93, kōtaretare6,7,8,7, kotaritari5, kotoretaro11, native kingfisher33, New Zealand sacred kingfisher73, North Island kingfisher43, South Island kingfisher43, warehenga36

Traversia lyalli Lyall’s wren101, Lyall’s rockwren114, rock wren107, Stephen Island wren48, Stephens Island rockwren126, Stephens Island wren32,53,88

Tribonyx hodgenorum Hodgens’ waterhen101, Hodgen’s rail88, New Zealand gallinule73

Tribonyx ventralis black-tailed native-hen78,88, black-tailed waterhen48,135, gallinule135, swamphen135, turbo-chicken135, waterhen135

Tringa brevipes grey-tailed tattler72, ashen tringine sandpiper135, grey sandpiper135, grey-rumped sandpiper84, grey-rumped tattler73, Siberian tattler78

Tringa flavipes lesser yellowlegs79, yellowshank86

Tringa incana wandering tattler52, Alaskan tattler78, American grey-rumped sandpiper86, American tattler86, grey sandpiper24

Tringa nebularia common greenshank94, greenshank34

Tringa stagnatilis marsh sandpiper78, little greenshank78

Turdus merula Eurasian blackbird111, manu pango93, blackbird16,22, common blackbird108, merle22

Turdus philomelos song thrush16,35, manu-kai-hua-rakau92, English thrush44, mavis86, piopio122, thrush22

Turnagra capensis & Turnagra tanagra, kakaroeo85, keropia11,85, koho eou11,85, korohea19,36, korokio54, koropio10,24, native thrush16,68, New Zealand native thrush108, New Zealand thrush78, piopio5,6,7,8,11,16, piopio-kata122,135, thrush10,14, tiotio7,54, tiotio-kata135, tiutiu6,7,8,54,81, tiutiukata19,36

Turnagra capensis South Island piopio73, piopio7, golobieo11, kakaroeo11, korowhio92, South Island thrush19,35, thick-billed thrush11; T. c. minor Stephens Island piopio111

Turnagra tanagra North Island piopio73, piopio6,9, korowhea58, North Island thrush19

Tyto alba barn owl73; T. a. delicatula Australian barn owl72, delicate owl86, eastern barn owl113, lesser masked owl86, screech owl78, white owl78

Vanellus miles masked lapwing91, Australian masked plover24, masked plover88; V. m. novaehollandiae spur-winged plover43, spur-wing135

Waimanu manneringi Mannering’s penguin111

Xenicus gilviventris rock wren16,19, pīwauwau113, alpine rock wren105,114, alpine wren43, Fiordland rock wren73, hurupounamu99, mātuhi113, mātuhituhi134, mātuitui99, mountain wren14, New Zealand rock wren104,114, northern rock wren119, rock wren “northern”119, rock wren “southern”119, South Island wren110, southern rock wren119, tuke113

Xenicus jagmi North Island stout-legged wren88, Grant-Mackie’s wren90, stout-legged wren101

Xenicus longipes bush wren19,48,114, mātuhituhi19,81, e-tecte tee pomou11, green wren16, heno92, hino92, hurupounamu19,54, kakaruai10, kōtipatipa93, long-legged warbler11, longlegged wren10, mātuhi36,109, mātuitui99, mirō-mirō11, momotawai38, New Zealand bush wren104, pīwauwau19,81, puano24, rifleman16, rock wren16, stripe-faced wren16, toirua38, Tom Thumb bird78, white-legged wren85, wren14; X. l. stokesii North Island bush wren43, matuhitui14, North Island wren34; X. l. longipes South Island bush wren43; X. l. variabilis Stead’s bush wren72, Stewart Island bush wren73

Xenicus yaldwyni South Island stout-legged wren88, stout-legged wren101, Yaldwyn’s wren90

Xenus cinereus Terek sandpiper72, avocet sandpiper86

Zapornia pusilla Baillon’s crake91, Baillon’s rail115; P. p. affinis marsh crake52, kotoreke36, kāreke36,81, koikoiareke54, koitareke19, koitareki14, kōkōreke6,8,36,81, koreke36, kōriki81, little crake53, marsh rail24,32, moho katatai10, moho patatai11, patatai9, popotai9, spotted rail16, swamp-crake30, swamp rail14, tāreke81, toitoi92, water crake19,85

Zapornia tabuensis spotless crake52, pūweto6,8,39, black rail14, blue rail16, kueto54, kuiato54, kūweto7,8,36, mehotatai11, moakerua7, moakoru7, moho8,9, moho pereru10, moho periru9, motarua9, Polynesian rail56, pūeto19,81, pūetoeto7,8,81, puheto54, puketo85, pūtoto14,81, pūwetoweto36,81, puwheto54, slate-colored rail12, sooty rail78, spotless rail58, swamp crake19,28, swamp rail24,32, Tabuan rail11, tītitipō54,81, totoriwai9

Zosterops lateralis silvereye19,43,52, tauhou14,32,81, blightbird14,16,54, blightie78, chestnut flanked white-eye113, gold-eye47, grey-breasted silver-eye53, hiraka24, iringatau19, kanohi mōwhiti14,19,93,134, kanohi-mowhitiwhiti54, karu-hiriwha19, karu-patene19, karu-ringi24, mōtengitengi81, motingitingi7,24, mowhiti54, mowhitiwhiti54, notingitingi36, pihipihi6,8,36, pīkaraihe81, poporehe99, poporohe19, ring-eye54,92, stranger85, tauhau14, titiri pounamu92, twinkie47, waxeye16,42,44, whiorangi24, white-eye13,16

1J. Latham 1782, 2J. Latham 1783, 3J. Latham 1785, 4McCormick 1842, 5J.E. Gray 1843, 6W. Williams 1844, 7R. Taylor 1848, 8W. Williams 1852, 9R. Taylor 1855, 10Ellman 1861, 11G.R. Gray 1862, 12Buller 1869, 13F. Hutton 1869, 14Anon. 1870, 15R. Taylor [1870], 16F. Hutton 1871, 17Potts 1872b, 18Potts 1872c, 19Buller 1872–73, 20Potts 1873, 21Buller 1875b, 22Potts 1882, 23Reischek 1885, 24Buller 1887–88, 25Cheeseman 1888b, 26Cheeseman 1889, 27Reischek 1889, 28W. Smith 1889, 29A. Shand 1895, 30Handly 1896, 31Pycroft 1899, 32F. Hutton & Drummond 1904, 33Fulton 1904, 34Buller 1905–06, 35Ogilvie-Grant 1905, 36H.W. Williams 1906, 37J. McLean 1907, 38E. Best 1909, 39F. Hutton & Drummond 1909, 40Waite 1909, 41Fulton 1910, 42Guthrie-Smith 1910, 43Mathews & Iredale 1913, 44Guthrie-Smith 1914, 45Anon. 1917, 46Guthrie-Smith 1921, 47Thomson 1922, 48Oliver 1923, 49Archey & Lindsay 1924, 50Guthrie-Smith 1925, 51Mathews 1930b, 52Oliver 1930, 53Mathews 1931, 54J. Walker [1931], 55Mathews 1934b, 56Guthrie-Smith 1936, 57Mathews 1936b, 58Moncrieff 1936, 59R. Murphy 1936, 60Fleming 1939a, 61Fleming 1939b, 62Richdale 1941, 63Richdale [1942], 64Richdale 1943, 65Richdale 1944, 66Richdale [1945], 67Richdale [1948], 68Richdale [1949], 69Richdale [1950], 70Buddle 1951, 71Sorensen 1951, 72Checklist Committee 1953, 73Oliver 1955, 74H.W. Williams 1957, 75Phillipps 1958, 76Westerskov 1960, 77Bailey & Sorensen 1962, 78Falla et al. 1966, 79Checklist Committee 1970, 80Falla et al. 1970, 81H.W. Williams 1971, 82Soper 1976, 83Checklist Committee 1980, 84Falla et al. 1981, 85Fleming 1982, 86C. Robertson 1985, 87Holdaway 1989, 88Checklist Committee 1990, 89Marchant & Higgins 1990, 90B. Gill & Martinson 1991, 91Marchant & Higgins 1993, 92Beattie 1994, 93Ryan 1995, 94Heather & Robertson 1996, 95Higgins & Davies 1996, 96Ngāi Tahu 1998, 97Higgins 1999, 98Department of Conservation 1999, 99A. Crowe 2001, 100Higgins et al. 2001, 101Holdaway et al. 2001, 102Higgins & Peter 2002, 103Shirihai 2002, 104Worthy & Holdaway 2002, 105Dickinson 2003, 106Aikman & Miskelly 2004, 107Medway 2004d, 108Higgins et al. 2006, 109Tennyson & Martinson 2006, 110BirdLife International 2007, 111Checklist Committee 2010, 112Ewen et al. 2013, 113Scofield & Stephenson 2013, 114Dickinson & Christidis 2014, 115Heather & Robertson 2015, 116Deppe et al. 2017, 117Rawlence, Kardamaki et al. 2017, 118Rawlence, Till et al. 2017, 119H. Robertson et al. 2017, 120E. Bell et al. 2018, 121Clements et al. 2019, 122Te Papa 2019, 123Wehi et al. 2019, 124S. Howell & Zufelt 2019, 125E. Bell et al. 2020, 126Handbook of the Birds of the World and BirdLife International 2020, 127Galla et al. 2020, 128Evans 2021, 129Fischer et al. 2021, 130Forsdick et al. 2021, 131Friesen et al. 2021, 132F. Gill et al. 2021, 133He Pātaka Kupu 2021, 134Māori Dictionary 2003–21, 135Miskelly 2013–21, 136Predator Free NZ 2022, 137Checklist Committee 2022 (this publication).